AKS 48 World War II. I. Dictators Threaten World Peace – The Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis. MAIN IDEA: The rise of rulers with total power in Europe and Asia led to World War II. A. In Germany, Adolf Hitler hoped to unite all German-speaking people into a new German empire.
I. Dictators Threaten World Peace – The Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis MAIN IDEA: The rise of rulers with total power in Europe and Asia led to World War II.
A. In Germany, Adolf Hitler hoped to unite all German-speaking people into a new German empire. Hitler believed that Germans—especially blond, blue-eyed “Aryans”—were a master race, fated to achieve power over all “inferior races.” Hitler also believed that Germany had to expand its territory to thrive Nazism - combined extreme nationalism with racism and expansionism Once appointed chancellor, Hitler seized all power.
B. Benito Mussolini -came to power as head of a fascist movement Fascism - combines nationalism with a strong central government avoids communism’s direct control of farms and factories Mussolini crushed all foes
C. Japan- military leaders believed that more land and resources were needed. 1931 - launch an attack on a province of China With success there, Japanese militarists gained control of Japan’s government. D. The League of Nations’ failure to stop Japan emboldened Hitler and Mussolini Hitler rebuilt the German armed forces, breaking the Versailles treaty Mussolini conquered Ethiopia
E. World nations - responded weakly to these threats to peace F. Most Americans wanted the U.S. to avoid foreign conflicts G. 1935 - civil war broke out in Spain between an elected government and a group of fascists H. “Lincoln Brigades” - volunteered to go and fight on behalf of the democratic government I. F.D.R. - continued to send arms and supplies to China
II. World at War MAIN IDEA: Using the sudden mass attack called blitzkrieg, Germany invaded and quickly conquered many European countries.
A. September 1, 1939 - Hitler launched World War II by attacking Poland. B. The Germans used tanks and planes in an attack called blitzkrieg, or “lightning war” C. September 2, 1939 – England and France declare war on Germany
D. 1940 – Hitler had captured Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg and France E. Planned to conquer Great Britain next F. Battle of Britain – Germans send bombers to attack London G. Eagle Squadron – American pilots who went to England to help them fight the Nazis
III. America Moves Toward War MAIN IDEA: In response to the fighting in Europe, the United States provided economic and military aid to help the Allies achieve victory.
A. Neutrality Acts – series of laws passed in the 1930’s to keep the U.S. out of European conflicts B. Isolationist Congress concerned that FDR wanted to get involved in European war
C. Lend Lease Act - amended the Neutrality Act allowing the United States to sell weapons “any country whose defense was vital to the United States”; “cash and carry basis” – countries had to pay cash and come to America and pick up weapons D. Provided immediate aid to Allies (England, France, Soviet Union) against Germans
C. Japan’s agreement with Germany and Italy alarmed many Americans D. Roosevelt increased the aid to Great Britain. E. Congress - passed a military draft and began training men for the armed forces. F. 1940 - Roosevelt broke tradition and ran for a third term as president, winning easily
G. August 1941 - Roosevelt met with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. H. Atlantic Charter - statement of goals for which the war was being fought. The United States had not yet entered that war, however. I. German submarines attacked American ships in the Atlantic, but FDR felt he lacked support to declare war
J. When Japan seized Indochina, the United States protested. K. Peace talks between the two countries began in late 1941 L. December 7, 1941 - Japanese attack the primary U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii; wanted to prevent U.S. Navy from stopping them in Southeast Asia
M. The attack left many navy ships destroyed and others crippled N. December 8, 1941 - President Roosevelt asked Congress for a declaration of war; quickly approved
IV. Mobilizing for Defense MAIN IDEA: Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States mobilized for war.
“. . . We will have to build up the navy and the air force, and that will mean we will have to take a good many defeats before we can have a victory.” _ FDR to Eleanor Roosevelt A. Fighting a war on two fronts (Asia and Europe); required large numbers of soldiers B. German subs sunk American ships bringing supplies to Europe
C. 5 million volunteered;10 million were drafted ; eight weeks of basic training D. 300,000 Mexican Americans, a million African Americans, and many thousand Asian and Native Americans
E. Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)- About 200,000 women served in the military; did not receive the same pay or benefits as male soldiers
F. War Production Board – in charge of converting American factories from peacetime to wartime production – increased role of federal government G. Automakers made planes, tanks, and other vehicles; shipyards built warships H. General Purpose Vehicle – the G.P. or Jeep I. 18 million workers—one third of them women—kept war industries productive
J. Fair Employment Act - African Americans pushed for—and won—equal access to jobs in war industries (A. Philip Randolph’s threat to March on Washington)
Marilyn Monroe Norma Jean Mortenson working in and airplane factory in World War II
K. New family situations - high marriage rate boomed during the war (led to higher divorce rate after) L. Single mothers – had to juggle jobs and childrearing M. G.I. Bill of Rights – paid for returning servicemen to attend college or technical school
N. War Bonds – started as Defense Bonds; became War bonds after attack on Pearl Harbor O. Loans to government to fund war; entertainers encourage Americans to buy them P. After 10 years Americans could cash in bonds and get money back with interest
Q. Japanese Internment Camps-after FDR issued an Executive Order for Removal – “security threat” 1. Homes, businesses, and possessions taken when they were 2. sent to internment camps 3. Some joined the army to show their loyalty 4. Others sued to end the internment, but the courts refused 5. 1990 - government admitted it was wrong and made reparation (compensation) payments to all those that had been interned
R. Office of Price Administration (OPA) - froze the prices of consumer goods and issued ration books, restricting access to scarce goods such as gasoline and meat. S. Rationing – saving certain goods and raw materials for military use (rubber, scrap metal, plastic, food, gas)
T. Victory Gardens – families planted gardens for themselves so that commercially grown foods could be sent to the troops
V. The War for Europe and North Africa MAIN IDEA: Allied forces led by the United States and Great Britain battled Axis powers for control of Europe and North Africa.
A. Late 1941 - President Roosevelt met with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill B. Agreed to concentrate their efforts on defeating Germany first, then Japan C. Began a close alliance between the two nations
D. North Africa 1. Germans had conquered much of North Africa behind General Erwin Rommel 2. British had won a huge victory at El-Alamein 3. First American battles against Germans are in North Africa – defeated soundly at Kasserine Pass 4. General George Patton – rebuilds American troops and morale with discipline 5. Leads Operation Torch and drives across North Africa; drives Rommel out of Africa by May, 1943 6. Red Tails – 99th Pursuit Squadron – “Tuskegee Airmen”
7. Conquered Sicily and prepared for invasion of Italy (“soft underbelly”) 8. Italians overthrow and arrest dictator Benito Mussolini 9. Hitler saves Mussolini and attacked Italy 10. Allied advance through Italy was slow and bloody
D-DAY: Allied Invasion of Europe Supreme Allied Commander Dwight D. Eisenhower speaking to 101st Airborne before D-Day
A. D-Day: June 6, 1944 – “Operation Overlord” – Eisenhower’s new plan since North African and Italian campaign had not stopped Germans B. Allies invade France; begin liberation from the Nazis C. Cross English Channel and land on five different beaches 1. U.S. – Omaha Beach and Utah Beach 2. British – Gold Beach and Sword Beach 3. Canadian - Juno
4. Patton – used as a decoy and made to look like he was going to invade at Calais 5. Germans thought Normandy was the decoy and refused to send troops there
6. Allies able to break through German defenses and begin liberation of France 7. “Hun on the Run” – Allies begin sweeping across Europe liberating hundreds of towns 8. Battle of the Bulge – Germany’s Last Offensive Germans launch Winter attack in Ardennes Forest in Belgium in December, 1944 Surround U.S. General McAuliffe and the 101st Airborne; demand surrender McAuliffe’s reply - “Nuts” Caused a “bulge” in the Allied line
e. Patton’s 3rd Army – disengages from a battle and marches over 100 miles in snow to relieve McAuliffe in Bastogne f. Effectively ends any hope of German victory
9. April, 1945 - The Soviets enter Eastern Berlin while Americans come from the west 10. Hitler committed suicide, and a week later Germany surrendered 11. As the Allied armies advanced, they began to find the death camps that the Nazis had built to kill millions of Jews and others
D. The Holocaust MAIN IDEA: During the Holocaust, the Nazis systematically executed 6 million Jews and 5 million other "non-Aryans."
1. Part of Hitler’s plan for Germany was to make the country racially pure. 2. 1933 - he ordered all non-Aryans out of government jobs. 3. 1935 - new laws hurt the people who were Hitler’s main target: the Jews. They lost their civil rights and property. 4. 1938 – “Night of Broken Glass” the Nazis terrorized Jews in a night of attacks
5. During the Nazis’ rise to power, Jews left Germany in great numbers 6. The United States accepted some 100,000 refugees, but refused to accept more 7. Many Americans feared competition for scarce Depression-era jobs
8. 1939 - Nazis adopted the “final solution” to what they called “the Jewish problem” 9. Jews who were healthy would be seized and sent to slave labor camps 10. The rest would be taken and systematically killed Some Jews were crowded into ghettos, special sections of cities 11. Most were taken to concentration camps where they suffered hunger, illness, overwork, and death
12. 1941 - Nazis built special “death camps” meant solely to kill people in mass numbers. Prisoners were gassed or shot 13. Some died in horrible medical “experiments.” Nearly six million Jews died in the death camps 14. The Nazis also murdered many other peoples: Soviets, Poles, gypsies, homosexuals, and the disabled
E. The Yalta Conference of 1945
1. February 1945- Roosevelt met with Churchill and Stalin at the Soviet resort city of Yalta
2. Three major agreements were to: a. divide Germany into 4 zones after the war b. get Soviet help against Japan c. create the United Nations
VII. The War in the Pacific MAIN IDEA: In order to defeat Japan and end the war in the Pacific, the United States unleashed a terrible new weapon, the atomic bomb.
A. After Pearl Harbor, Japan captured large parts of Asia and the Pacific B. April 1942 - Doolittle Raid - air raid on Tokyo that lifted American spirits C. Japanese attacks in 1942 1. Took the Philippines in 1942 (General McArthur – “I shall Return”) 2. Attacked Midway Island in June, 1942 – wanted it because it was the closest U.S. Naval Base to Japan; Japan could also attack Hawaii from Midway 3. Also attacked the Aleutian Islands (Alaska) 4. Defeated by U.S Navy, led by the Enterprise, Hornet and Yorktown
D. U.S. victories in the Battles of Midway and Coral Sea considered turning point of war in the Pacific E. Japanese lose many aircraft carriers and planes
F. Island Hopping – strategy developed by General Douglas MacArthur; called for leapfrogging, island by island, across the Pacific toward Japan G. Used Navy to send supplies to forces, built bases, ports, and airfields on captured islands H. 1943-Allies took Guadalcanal in and gradually moved northwest I. 1944 -recaptured the Philippines
J. Feb. – March, 1945 - bloody battle for Iwo Jima (Sulfur Island)
K. April 12, 1945 -President Roosevelt died in Warm Springs, Ga
L. Vice President Harry S. Truman took over while the Allies won a costly battle in Okinawa M. U.S. leaders feared similar high casualties if Japan itself had to be invaded
N. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) -scientists recruited to develop new weapons and medicines 1. Produced radar, sonar, penicillin and other “miracle” drugs 2. Manhattan Project - secret development of the atomic bomb 3. Los Alamos, New Mexico – location for atomic research; away from high populations
O. April, 1945 – after FDR’s death, President Truman was told of the secret effort to develop an atomic bomb P. Scientists were split over whether or not to use the bomb on Japan Q. July – August, 1945 – Potsdam Conference – Truman, Stalin and Churchill issue an ultimatum to Japan – surrender or “face prompt and bitter destruction”
R. Truman decided to authorize using the weapon in order to save American and Japanese lives 1. August 6, 1945 - the Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, leveling the city 2. August 9, 1945 - The Japanese refused to surrender so another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. 3. August 15, 1945 - the Japanese surrender
S. September 2, 1945 – General MacArthur accepts Japanese formal surrender on deck of the battleship USS Missouri
T. War Crimes Trials - Nazi and Japanese leaders are held responsible for the war and for cruel treatment of prisoners and civilians U. The United States occupied Japan, helping create a democratic government (General MacArthur)
Navajo Code Talkers Navajo language used as a code; could not be broken by Japanese Used Navajo words as code Tank = Navajo word for turtle Destroyer = Navajo word for shark Battleship = Navajo word for whale Originally 200 words; grew to over 600 terms Iwo Jima – translated over 800 messages in the first hours of the battle, saving thousands of American lives Remained a secret for over 20 years after the war Awarded Congressional Medal of Honor on 1990
RED TAILS – The Tuskegee Airmen 332nd Army Air Corps created in 1940 – 1st all black air corps Trained at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama 1st missions were in Italy The Red Tails – escorted bombers and protected them from enemy fire; never lost a bomber DOUBLE VICTORY – idea supported by The Pittsburgh Courier; supported the concept that African-Americans were trying to win two victories – World War II abroad and equality at home
"The V for victory sign is being displayed prominently in all so-called democratic countries, which are fighting for victory... Let we colored Americans adopt the double V for a double victory. The first V for victory over our enemies from without, the second V for victory over our enemies from within." (James G. Thompson, 1942)
RED TAILS – The Tuskegee Airmen “By ReQuest” – name given to the P-51 Mustang flown by Col. Benjamin Davis, leader of the squadron; he gave it this name because most bomber groups requested the Red Tails as escorts; most did not know that they were African-American pilots
The combat record of the Tuskegee Airmen • Over 15,000 combat sorties (Including 6000+for the 99th prior to July '44)• 111 German airplanes destroyed in the air• 150 German aircraft destroyed on the ground• 950 railcars, trucks, and other motor vehicles destroyed• 1 destroyer sunk by P-47 machine gun fire• Sixty-six pilots killed in action or accidents• Thirty-two pilots downed and captured, POWs• NO Bombers were ever lost to Enemy Aircraft while being escorted• 150 Distinguished Flying Crosses earned• 744 Air Medals• 8 Purple Hearts• 14 Bronze Stars
Doolittle Tokyo Raiders
April 18, 1942
Jimmy Doolittle with J.H. Kindelberger of the North American Aviation, builder of the B-25 bomber. The B-25 Bomber
16 B-25 bombers took off from the deck of the USS Hornet on April 18, 1942. Their mission: bomb Tokyo.
Several Chinese helped the American pilots survive and escape back to the U.S. In response, the Japanese killed more than 250,000 Chinese in the area where the pilots landed.
Four Survivors on the 70th Anniversary of the Doolittle Raid April 18, 2012