Background • In 1980s, American psychologist, Howard Gardner proposed the theory of ‘multiple intelligences’. • In 1994 and 1996, Armstrong and Christison gave examples respectively of activities that fit each type of intelligence. • In 1999, Gardner added an eighth intelligence, the naturalist- knowledgeable about and comfortable in the natural world.
Seven intelligences • Logical/mathematical- use numbers effectively, reason well. e.g.: puzzles, categorisations.. • Visual/spatial- orient oneself in the environment, create mental images. e.g.: charts, drawing…
Seven intelligences(cont.) • Musical/rhythmic- sensitive to rhythm, melody. e.g.: singing, playing music, jazz chants. • Body/kinesthetic- use body to express oneself and solve problems. e.g.: hands-on activities, field trips, pantomime.
Seven intelligences(cont.) • Interpersonal- ability to understand other’s feelings, intentions… e.g.: pair work, project work.. • Intrapersonal- ability to understand oneself and practice self-discipline. e.g.: self-evaluation (reflection), journal keeping.
Seven intelligences(cont.) • Verbal/linguistic- ability to use language effectively and creatively. e.g.: note-taking, story telling, debates, speech.