Multiple Intelligence Theory Christina Shoemaker Holly Smith MSN 6501 Advancement in Nursing Science
Multiple Intelligence (MI) Theory • Howard Gardner in 1983 identified eight categories of learning strategies: • Linguistic (language) • Logical-Mathematical (thinking and reasoning/use of numbers) • Visual-Spatial (learning through graphic images) • Bodily-Kinesthetic (wisdom/controlling physical motion) • Musical (ability to recognize sounds) • Interpersonal (person to person communication, group work) • Intrapersonal (self reflection and awareness) • Naturalistic (recognize patterns in nature and classify objects)
Purpose of MI Theory • Gardner argued that an individual could not be sufficiently tested regarding intelligence alone– a wide variety of specific human abilities must be taken into account, “it is not how smart you are, but how you are smart.” • Gardner found that “it would certainly be desirable to have an algorithm for the selection of an intelligence, such that any trained researcher could determine whether a candidate's intelligence met the appropriate criteria. At present, however, it must be admitted that the selection (or rejection) of a candidate's intelligence is reminiscent more of an artistic judgment than of a scientific assessment.” (Gardner, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, 1985)
Components Effected by MI Theory • Gardner defines intelligence as “the ability to solve a problem or fashion a product which is valued in one or more cultural settings.” • Culture • Language • Education • Background • Experiences
MI Theory Research • Gardner's initial work was focused on helping students with attention deficit disorders or students with brain injuries • Classroom: Provides strategies for problem solving by using different learning styles. • Educational curriculum based on this theory • Gardner’s research is based on helping individuals understand their intelligence, rather than labeling and ranking.
Applied Research • Verbal/linguistic: “I learn best by instructor lecturing to me.” • Logical/Mathematical: “I think math is easy.” • Visual/spatial: “I must visualize it in my head to remember it.” • Kinesthetic: “I must perform the procedure to learn it.” • Musical: “I like to listen to music while studying.” • Interpersonal: “I learn must in group settings.” • Intrapersonal: “I learn best when I work alone.” • Naturalistic: “I like to work/study outside in the open.”
How is MI theory applied to nursing? • MI theory is used throughout the nursing practice by evaluation of patient and families for specific individual learning strategies and techniques. • Gardner believed that when MI-inspired instruction is implemented with adult learning, is found to reduce teacher directedness, increase student control and initiative, increase the authenticity of the learning experience, and make learning more relevant for students. This can be applied to nurse-patient interactions.
Applied in my nursing practice • Understanding how different cultural backgrounds learn in different ways • Identifying which individuals require visual vs. written explanation • Learning to be patient with individuals for they may not have the experience/education for comprehending ideas/needs
Applied in my nursing practice, cont. • Understand that each patient has many life experiences to offer and share with nursing staff, that enhances/changes how we interact between nurse and patient • Remember when teaching a patient that a person’s culture, language, education, background, and experiences all make up that patient and should be respected and regarded
References • Howard, G., & Moran, S. (2006). The science of multiple intelligence theory: a response to Lyn Waterhouse. Education Psychologist, 41(4), 227-232. • Ozlem, Dogan. (2007). The effects of teaching activities prepared according to the multiple intelligence theory on mathematics achievements and permanence of information learned by 4th grade students. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 2(4), 89-91. • Vincent, A., & Ross, D. (2002). Using the multiple intelligence theory in international business. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 14(1), 45.