Human Anatomy and Physiology PowerPoint Meghan Groom Period 2 August 10, 2012
Question 1: Define anatomy and physiology and describe their subdivisions. Anatomy and physiology is the science of the structure of the body combined with the science of the functions of the body. Subdivisions of Anatomy: • -Gross Anatomy is the study of large body structures. • -Microscopic Anatomy, which includes cytology and histology. • - “Other” specialized branches, are pathology and radiographic anatomy. • -The subdivisions of physiology are neurophysiology, endocrinology, cardiovascular physiology, immunology, respiratory physiology, renal physiology, exercise physiology, and pathophysiology. Subdivisions of Physiology: • -Neurophysiology • -Endocrinology • -Cardiovascular Physiology • -Immunology • -Respiratory Physiology • -Renal Physiology • -Exercise Physiology • -Pathophysiology
Question 2: Name different levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and explain their relationships. • Levels of Structural Organization: • -Chemical • -Cellular • -Tissue • -Organ • -Organ Systems • -Organism • Chemical reactions occur in the cells, which make up tissue, and organs. Organ systems are made up of multiple organs. And, cells, in the form of tissue and organs, make up the entire organism.
Question 3: List the 11 organ systems of the body, identify their components, and briefly explain the major functions of each system. • Eleven Organ Systems: • -Integumentary System, includes skin and nails, helps protect the body from abrasions, ultraviolet rays, and dehydration. • -Muscular System, provides movement and stabilization, and also generates heat. • -Skeletal System, provides support and structure for the body. • -Nervous System, is responsible for communication throughout the body • -Endocrine System, produces hormones that control growth, metabolism, and sexual development. • -Circulatory System, flows blood and oxygen throughout the body. • -Lymphatic System, aids the immune system and helps get rid of toxins. • -Respiratory System, supplies blood cells with oxygen. • -Digestive System, breaks down food in order to make nutrients and energy. • -Urinary System, removes wastes from the body. • -Reproductive System, ensures the survival of the human race.
Question 4: List the functional characteristics necessary to maintain life in humans. -Movement- locomotion -Responsiveness- ability to respond to stimuli. -Digestion- breaking down food to be absorbed into the blood -Metabolism- maintaining stable internal conditions -Excretion -eliminating waste products from metabolism -Reproduction- the process of creating new organisms to keep the species surviving -Growth- the ability for cells to provide, and individuals and societies to grow as a whole
Question 5: Define homeostasis and explain its significance. • -Homeostasis- the self-sustaining mechanisms in organisms that tries to maintain stable internal conditions. • -Without homeostasis, organisms would not be able to have stable internal conditions, and therefore would not be able to survive.
Question 6: Describe how negative and positive feedback maintain body homeostasis. • -Negative feedback is when the body does the reverse of what happening to it to reverse the process. • -Positive feedback is when the body promotes what is happening to it to reach normal conditions. • Both processes cause the body to go back to normal conditions and maintain homeostasis.
Question 7: Describe anatomical position. • -Anatomical Position is when the body is standing up with its feet together, arms by its side, and the head, eyes and palms of the hands are facing forward.
Question 8: Use correct anatomical terms to describe body directions, regions, and body planes or sections. • -Superior and inferior refer to the placement of body parts along the long axis of the body. • - Anterior/ventral and posterior/dorsal describe body parts toward the front side or the backside of the body. • -Media and lateral are used to refer to body parts that are near or away from the midline. • -Cephalic refers to the head, whereas caudal refers to the tail end. • -Proximal and distal are used to describe things that are near or far away from each other. • -Superficial and deep are used to describe organs proximity to the skin. • -Sagittal Plane divides the body into left and right. • -Frontal Plane, or coronal plane, divides the body into anterior and posterior. • -Transverse Plane divides the body into superior and inferior parts.
Question 9: Locate and name the major body cavities and their subdivisions, and list major organs contained within them. Dorsal Cavity: -Subdivisions *Cranial Cavity *Spinal Cavity -Major Organ *Brain Ventral Cavity: -Subdivisions *Thoracic Cavity *Pelvic Cavity *Abdominopelvic Cavity -Major Organs *Heart *Trachea *Esophagus *Lungs *Stomach *Intestines *Liver *Kidneys *Spleen *Pancreas *Urinary Bladder *Lower end of the colon *internal reproductive organs (primarily female)
Question 10: Name the serous membranes and indicate their common function. • Serous Membranes: • -Pericardium • -Pleura • -Peritoneum • All three are thin layers of tissue surrounding major organs, such as the heart, throat, and stomach, respectively.
Question 11: Name the nine regions or four quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity and list the organs they contain. • Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) • -Liver • -Gall Bladder • -Duodenum • -Pancreas • -Colon • Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ) • -Cecum • -Appendix • -Colon • -Right Ovary • -Right Ureter. • Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) • -Stomach • -Spleen • -Colon • -Liver • -Pancreas • Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ) • -Colon • -Left Ovary • -Left Ureter
Question 12: Describe major energy forms. • Major Forms of Energy: • -Chemical Energy is created by making and breaking chemical bonds. • -Electromagnetic Energy is made of photons. • -Heat Energy is the vibration of matter. • -Mechanical Energy is the energy of motion calculated by the equation E=1/2mv2. • -Nuclear Energy comes from decaying radioactive material. • -Potential Energy is energy in a stored form. • -Kinetic Energy is energy in motion.
Question 13: Define chemical element, and list the four elements that form the bulk of the body. • -Chemical Element a pure chemical with one type of atom. • -Four Elements That Form the Bulk of the Body: • *Oxygen • *Hydrogen • *Carbon • *Nitrogen
Question 14: Compare solutions, colloids, and suspensions. • Three Major Types of Mixtures: • -Solutions, a homogeneous mixture in which particles are distributed evenly. • -Colloids, a mixture with medium sized particles that disperse evenly throughout the mixture. • -Suspensions, a mixture in which solute-like particles eventually settle into a solvent-like phase.
Question 15: Compare and contrast polar and nonpolar compounds. • Polar Compounds: • -When two or more elements with differences in electronegativity between 0.5 and 1.7 are bonded. • -Electrons are shared unevenly, causing one side to be slightly negative and the other to be slightly positive. • Both: • -Bonds are covalent, and between two nonmetals. • Nonpolar Compounds: • -Have elements with differences in electronegativity less than 0.5 bonded together.
Question 16: Define the three major types of chemical reactions: synthesis, decomposition, and exchange. Comment on the nature of oxidation reduction reactions and their importance. • Major Types of Chemical Reactions: • -Synthesis, when two or more substances come together to for a compound. • -Decomposition, when a compound breaks apart to form two or more separate substances. • -Exchange (two types) • -The first is when a single substance replaces one of the substances in a compound. • -The other is when there are two compounds, and one of the substances in each switch. • -Oxidation is oxygen reacts with hydrocarbons to make carbon dioxide and water. Oxidation is a source of heat, light and power.
Question 17: Explain why chemical reactions in the body are often irreversible. • -Chemical reactions in the body are often irreversible because homeostasis creates conditions that make it so reactions can only move in the direction that sustains homeostasis.
Question 18: Explain the importance of water and salts to body homeostasis. • Water • -Has a high heat capacity, so it will not raise its temperature much when it absorbs heat. This allows the body to not loose too much heat. • -Has a high vaporization point, which means it takes in a lot of heat when we sweat. • -The universal solvent. A lot of things, like metabolic waste, can be carried in it. All of which is good for homeostasis. • Salt • -An electrolyte that helps with nerve impulse transitions, muscle contractions, and water balance, all of which contribute to homeostasis.
Question 19: Define acid and base, and explain the concept of pH. • -Acid, gives the base a hydrogen ion. • -Base, takes the hydrogen ion. • -pH, is the measure of acidity in a substance. • -If the pH is lower than 6, it is an acid. • If the pH is higher than 8, it is a base. • If the pH is 7, then it is neutral.
Question 20: Describe the general mechanism of enzyme activity. • -Enzymes help speed up reactions in the body. • -First, the enzyme is made. It has anywhere from 100 to 1000 amino acids in it. • -Then, a substrate goes to an activation site and change’s its shape to fit that of the substrate. • -After that, the reaction occurs and the activation site releases the product.
Question 21: List the three major regions of a generalized cell and indicate the function of each. • Three Major Regions of a Generalized Cell: • -Plasma Membrane, controls what comes in and out of the cell. • -Cytoplasm, holds organelles in their place. • -Nucleus, controls what goes on in the cell and hold’s its DNA.
Question 22: Describe the chemical composition of the plasma membrane and relate it to membrane functions. • -The plasma membrane is composed of a phospholipidbilayer. • -The part on the exterior of the membrane is hydrophilic and the part in the interior is hydrophobic. • -It is polar and nonpolar, respectively, making it hard for molecules to enter the cell. • -In addition, the plasma membrane also contains cholesterol and proteins.
Question 23: Compare the structure and function of tight junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions. • -Tight junctions, seal epithelia, sheets of cell that connect masses of cells and a cavity. They do two vital things: prevent the passage of molecules and ions between the spaces in the cell, and prevent the movement of integral membrane proteins. • -Gap junctions, are intercellular channels that allow ions and molecules to pass through. This allows changes in membrane potential to pass from cell to cell. • -Desmosomes, are patches of skin that hold two cells together. They attach to intermediate filaments of keratin in the cytoplasm. They are common in skin.
Question 24: Relate plasma membrane structure to active and passive transport mechanisms. Differentiate between these transport processes relative to energy source, substances transported, direction, and mechanism. • -Passive transport is when ions, sugars, or amino acids move from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration. They rely on protein carriers to get through the membrane, and does not use energy. Diffusion is an example of passive transport, as well as osmosis (the diffusion of water). • -Active transport is when larger molecules move from lower concentration to higher concentration. They need energy to get through the plasma membrane. An example of active transport is the sodium-potassium pump.
Question 25: Describe the role of the glycocalyx when cells interact with their environment. • -Glycocalyx is a coating around a cell that enables it to be recognized as a healthy cell and not an intruder. • It is a fuzzy coating made of carbohydrates, glycolipids and glycoproteins. • The only glycocalyx that is the same is in identical twins; everyone else has unique glycocalyx.
Question 26: Discuss the structure and function of mitochondria. • -Mitochondria, organelles that create energy. • -They are an oval shape, with an inner and outer membrane, a matrix surrounded by intermembrane space, and cristas in the folds of the matrix. • -They produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is stored in food.
Question 27: Discuss the structure and function of ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus including functional interrelationships among these organelles. • -Ribosomes are protein builders found in the cytoplasm or on endoplasmic reticulum (rough endoplasmic reticulum). It is composed of two parts- the 60-S (the larger part) amd the 40-S (the smaller part). • -Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)- rough and smooth. They are both made of folded membrane, but smooth ER is a storage unit and rough ER helps in making proteins. • -Golgi Apparatus, a packaging unit that looks like rough ER. It takes small molecules, makes them into large molecules and then either stores them or sends them into the cell for use. They also create lysosomes.
Question 28: Compare the functions of lysosomes and peroxisomes. • Lysosomes: • -Hold enzymes within their membrane and digest waste in the cell or dead cells in animal cells. • -Hold enzymes that require no oxygen. • Peroxisomes: • -Which are in plant cells, also have a membrane that holds enzymes, but they hold a different kind. • -Hold enzymes that require oxygen.
Question 29: Describe the process of DNA replication. • 1. DNA starts to unwind itself • 2. Helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between the antiparallel strands. • 3. RNA Primer matches up with its DNA base pairs. This creates two pairs of DNA.
Question 30: Name two phases of protein synthesis and describe the roles of DNA, mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA in each phase. Compare triplets, codons and anticodons. • Transcription: • -Information from DNA is encoded into mRNA. • Translation: • -mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA work together to synthesize proteins. • -Triplets aresets of three bases that code for a specific codon, anticodon, or amino acid • -Codonsarethree bases that form a genetic code • -Anticodonsare three bases complementary to the codon
Question 31: List several structural and functional characteristics of epithelial tissue. Epithelial Tissue: -Covers the surface of the body. -Made entirely of cells. -Cells are tightly packed. -Has distinct upper and lower surfaces. -Not supported by blood cells. -Protects organs and blood vessels. -Can regenerate. -Supported by connective tissue.
Question 32: Name, classify, and describe the various types of epithelia; also include their chief functions and locations • -Squamous cells, or pavement cells, are thin, flat cells that line the mouth, blood vessels, heart, and lungs. • -Simple cuboidal epithelia are square shaped with spherical nuclei found in the glands of kidneys, and the gametes of ovaries and testes. • -Simple columnar epithelia are multilayered, columns that form the lining of the stomach and intestines, are the sensory receptors on the nose, ears, and tongue, and secrete mucus in the mouth. • -Cilliated columnar epithelia are like simple columnar epithelia, but have cillia on them and are found in the nose and Fallopian tubes. • -Columnar epithelia with goblet cells are called glandular epithelia.they secrete things such as enzymes and hormones, and are found in the salivary glands. • -Stratified epithelia is multilayered can either be keratinized or unkeritanized, and are found in the skin. • -All of these have functions such as protection and absorption.
Question 33: Define gland. Differentiate between exocrine and endocrine glands and multicellular and unicellular glands. • -Gland, one or more cells that create a secretion (product). To do that they chemically synthesize their product. • -Exocrine glands are externally secreting glands that secrete things substances onto the body’s surface or into cavities. • -Endocrine glands are mostly multi-cellular organs that produce hormones. • -Unicellular glands have one cell. • -Multicellular glands have multiple cells with either branched or unbranched ducts and a sectory unit.
Question 34: Describe the types of connective tissue found in the body, and indicate their characteristic functions. • -Loose connective tissues are widely scattered cells whose matrix is made up of fibers that are found beneath the skins surface. • -Adipose tissues connect adipose cells, which are loosely connected store fat. • -Blood is loosely connected tissues whose matrix is plasma, and transports substances from one part of the body to another. • -Collagen is closely connected tissue, which can either be regular, like tendons, or irregular, like the lining of organs. • -Cartilage is a connective tissue with a lot of fibers that can be found in-between disks, surrounding joints, and in the nose and ears. • -Bone is a connective tissue whose matrix is fibers coated in calcium sulfate, and makes up the skeletal system.
Question 35: Describe the structure and function of cutaneous, mucous, and serous membranes. • -Cutaneous membrane is the organ system that covers the surface of the body. It is made of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. • -Mucous membranes are wet, moist cells that are adapted for absorption and secretion. They line the cavities of the digestion track. • -Serous membranes are made of simple squamous epithelium on a thin layer of loose connective tissue, and are inside closed ventral cavities. They use hyaluronic to enrich the fluid coming into the capillaries.
Question 36: Outline the process of tissue repair involved in the normal healing of a superficial wound. • 1. To repair tissue, injured cells become inflamed and permeable. • 2. White blood cells begin clotting to stop the loss of blood. • 3. The clot forms, and the excess waste is removed through the lymphatic system. • 4. The clot becomes replaces by granulation tissue, which becomes scar tissue. • 5. As the regenerating epithelium thickens, the scab detaches.
Question 37: Indicate the embryonic origin of each tissue class. • -Connective tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood are all descended from mesenchyme. • -Muscle tissue and cardiac tissue are from the mesoderm. • -Nervous tissue is from the ectoderm.
Bibliography • "ANATOMICAL TERMS." Spring Hill College Faculty ｻ Faculty Web Pages. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. <http://faculty.shc.edu/cchester/BIO254/anatomicalterms.htm>. • "Cell Function." Rader's BIOLOGY 4 KIDS.COM. Web. 06 Sept. 2011. <http://www.biology4kids.com/>. • "Epithelial Tissue." The Department of Biodiversity & Conservation Biology - UWC. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. <http://www.bcb.uwc.ac.za/sci_ed/grade10/mammal/epithelial.htm>. • "Lecture 4-6: Cellular Biology." Computing Services for Faculty & Staff. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. <http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~uzwiak/AnatPhys/APFallLect4.html>. • "Chapter 4: Tissues, Organ Systems, and Homeostasis." SMCCD.NET Redirection Page. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. <http://www.smccd.net/accounts/kapp/130/note/130t4.htm>. • "Homeostasis." The Worlds of David Darling. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. <http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/H/homeostasis.html>. • "Why Are Chemical Reactions in the Human Body Often Irreversible." The Q&A Wiki. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. <http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_are_chemical_reactions_in_the_human_body_often_irreversible>.