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Honors Biology II EOC Review:

Honors Biology II EOC Review:

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Honors Biology II EOC Review:

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  1. Honors Biology II EOC Review:

  2. Biology Review: • Q:What is endocytosis? • A: the cell takes in macromolecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane.

  3. Biology Review: • Q: What is Exocytosis? • A: cell secretes macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane

  4. Biology Review: • Q: What is phagocytosis? • A: a cell engulfs a particle by wrapping it and packaging it within a sac

  5. Biology Review: • Q: What is pinocytosis? • A: the cell gulps droplets of extracellular fluid into tiny vesicles.

  6. Biology Review: • Q: Identify a nephron • A:

  7. Biology Review: • Q: Describe urine formation • A: Urine is expelled through the urethra. Both ureters drain into the urinary bladder. During urination, urine is expelled through the urinary bladder through a tube called the urethra.

  8. Biology Review: • Q: Describe the differences between osmoregualtion in marine and freshwater fish • A: In freshwater fish, they constantly gain water and lose salt because it is hyperosmotic to its surroundings. It balances the water gain by excreting large amounts of diluted urine. In saltwater fish, they constantly lose water by osmosis and gain salt by diffusion. The fish balance water loss by secreting extremely concentrated urine.

  9. Biology Review: • Q: Describe the excretion of terrestrial insects, birds, and reptiles • A: Ammonia is very soluble and can be tolerated at low concentrations. These animals have access to lots of water. Ammonia is common in aquatic species. Urea, however, is used by turtles and adult amphibians. It has a low toxicity and can be easily transported. Urea is energy expensive. Also, uric acid is used by land snails, insects, birds, and many reptiles. It is largely insoluble in water as a semisolid paste. Uric acid is extremely energetically expensive. Uric acid is important in reproduction. Soluble wastes can diffuse out of a shell-less amphibian egg. The shelled eggs produced by reptiles and birds are permeable to gases but not to liquids. Therefore, soluble nitrogenous wastes are released and a harmless solid is left behind.

  10. Biology Review: • Q: What is the number of protons and number that is unique to each element? • A: Atomic Number

  11. Biology Review: • Q: What phrase refers to the total mass of one atom of a specific element? • A: Atomic Mass

  12. Biology Review: • Q:What brings chemical groups of active site into positions that enhance their ability to catalyze the chemical reaction? • A: Induced Fit

  13. Biology Review: • Q:What part of the brain is responsible for speech and has motor cortex? • A: Frontal Lobe

  14. Biology Review: • Q: What part of the brain is responsible for smell? • A: Temporal Lobe

  15. Biology Review: • Q: What part of the brain is responsible for speech and somatosensory cortex? • A: Parietal Lobe

  16. Biology Review: • Q: What part of the brain is responsible for vision? • A: Occipital Lobe

  17. Biology Review: • Q: In muscle contractions what binding site is covered by Tropomyosin preventing muscle contractions? • A: Myosin binding site

  18. Biology Review: • Q: What is the smallest sub-section of the muscle? • A: Sarcomere

  19. Biology Review: • Q: The following terms occur in this order: blastula, cleavage, zygote, gastrula, morula. • A: What is zygote, cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula?

  20. Biology Review: • Q: These are the three germ layers during gastrulation. • A: What is the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm?

  21. Biology Review: • Q: This germ layer gives rise to the epidermis. • A: What is the ectoderm?

  22. Biology Review: • Q: This germ layer gives rise to muscle and vertebrae. • A: What is the mesoderm?

  23. Biology Review: • Q: This germ layer gives rise to the respiratory system, digestive system, and epithelium. • A:  What is the endoderm?

  24. Biology Review: • Q: These are the three stages of cell communication. • A: What is reception, transduction, and response?

  25. Biology Review: • Q: This stage of cell signaling occurs with a signal molecule and a receptor protein at the plasma membrane • A: What is reception?

  26. Biology Review: • Q: This stage of cell signaling makes a "pathway" • A: What is transduction?

  27. Biology Review: • Q: This stage of cell signaling usually ends in activation and cellular responses • A: What is response?

  28. Biology Review: • Q: This is the first stage of synaptic transmission. • A: What is synthesis and storage of neurotransmitters?

  29. Biology Review: • Q: This is the second stage of synaptic transmission. • A: What is neurotransmitter release?

  30. Biology Review: • Q: This is the third stage of synaptic transmission. • A: What is neurotransmitter postsynaptic receptors?

  31. Biology Review: • Q: This is the fourth and final stage of synaptic transmission. • A: What is Inactivation of neurotransmitters?

  32. Biology Review: • Q: This cation flows into the flows into the cell during nerve transmission. • A: What is Ca2+?

  33. Biology Review: • Q: This occurs when Na+ channels open up. • A: What is depolarization?

  34. Biology Review: • Q: List the characteristics and examples of the following animal phyla: Porifera, Cnidaria, and Playhelmentius. • A: Porifera- Sponges, they are sessile with porous bodies and choanocytes (collar cells for the membranous collar around the base of the flagellum) • Cnidaria- Sea anemone, they have radial symmetry, a gastrovascular cavity, and cnidocytes (unique cells that function in defense and capture of prey) • Playhelmenthus- Flatworms, they are acoelomates with gastrovascular cavities.

  35. Biology Review: • Q: List the characteristics and examples of the following animal phyla: Nematoda, Annelidia, Mollusca, Arthropoda, and Echinodermata • A: Nematoda- Roundworms, are nonsegmentedpseudocoelomates covered by tough cuticles. • Annelidia- Earthworms, segmented • Mollusca- Snails, muscular foor, visceral mass and a mantle • Arthropoda- Spiders, segmented coelomates with exoskeletons and jointed appendages. • Echinodermata- Sea Star, water vascular system and secondary radial anatomy

  36. Biology Review: • Q: Describe the parts of the blood: • A: -Cells suspended in plasma. • -Plasma is 90% water. It is important in maintaining osmotic balance. Nerves and muscles depend on the concentration of key ions in the interstitial fluid. • -Red blood cells transport oxygen. • -White blood cells function in defense. • -Platelets are fragments of cells that are important for blood clotting.

  37. Biology Review: • Q: Distinguish between open and closed circulatory systems: • A: -In an open circulatory system blood and interstitial fluid are the same, and this fluid is called hemolymph. The heart pumps hemolymph through vessels into sinuses, where materials are exchanged between the hemolymph and cells. Hemolymph returns to the heart through ostia, which are equipped with valves that close when the heart contracts. • -Closed systems circulate blood entirely within vessels. Blood and interstitial fluid is separate and chemicals are exchanged between them.

  38. Biology Review: • Q: Discuss the endosymbiotic theory and how it relates to the origin of eukaryotes: • A: -Proposes that mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes living within larger cells.

  39. Biology Review: • Q: How do you measure heart rate and blood pressure? • A: -Heart beats per minute can be found by counting your pulse for 60 seconds. • -Blood pressure is taken using a stethoscope and a sphygmomanometer

  40. Biology Review: • Q:Compare Prokaryote and Eukaryote traits concerning the nucleus • A: Prokaryote has no nuclei, eukaryote has nucelei

  41. Biology Review: • Q:Compare Prokaryote and Eukaryote traits concerning the location of DNA • A: Prokaryotic DNA is in the cytoplasm, eukaryotic in the nucleus

  42. Biology Review: • Q: Compare Prokaryote and Eukaryote traits concerning the membrane composition • A: Prakaryotic composed of peptidoglycans, eukaryotic composed of phospholipids

  43. Biology Review: • Q: What is the function of the nucleus in eukaryotic cells? • A: directs cell function through contained genetic material

  44. Biology Review: • Q: What is the function of the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells? • A: convert food sources to energy

  45. Biology Review: • Q: What is the function of the ribosomes in eukaryotic cells? • A: produce proteins

  46. Biology Review: • Q: What is the function of the golgi apparatus in eukaryotic cells? • A: package and ship proteins

  47. Biology Review: • Q: What is the function of the lysosome in eukaryotic cells? • A: break down food and dead cell parts

  48. Biology Review: • Q: What is the function of the ER in eukaryotic cells? • A: (rough) synthesize proteins, (smooth) synthesize lipids etc.

  49. Biology Review: • Q: What is the function of the vacuoles in eukaryotic cells? • A: Storage

  50. Biology Review: • Q: What is the status of the nucleus in animal versus plant cells? • A: present, present