August 12, 2014 Brian Blair Nicole Ropp The Danielson Framework
Learning Target • I will be be able to identify to others the value of the classroom teacher, the Domains of the Danielson framework and the role the framework plays in the evaluation process
Performance Evaluation Reform Act (2010) • Requires districts to use a performance evaluation system that assess teachers’ and principals’ professional skills and incorporate measures of student growth. • 4 category rating system: • Excellent • Proficient • Needs Improvement • Unsatisfactory • The performance evaluation system that PTHS is using is based on the Danielson Framework for Teaching.
Why Danielson? • Aligned to state teaching standards • Provides a comprehensive description of what teachers “do” on a daily basis • Recognizes and respects the complexity of teaching captured with a clear set of themes • Allows for all types of teaching situations, ensuring there is not gotcha opportunities • Research-based and validated • Provides a common language among professionals • Creates opportunities for open discussions about teaching, collaboration, while encouraging staff to self-reflect and evaluate themselves • Versatility for all levels of expertise & experience
Rivers (1999) • Can varying sequences of teacher quality vary student chances of passing a high stakes test? • Rivers (1999) followed students from 4th through 9th grade from two large urban districts. • Students were grouped into quartiles on the basis of achievement on the 4th grade standardized test. • Math teachers were identified for grades 5-8 and were linked to effectiveness levels (Low, Avg, High), based on their success in facilitating value-added achievement with a prior group of students. • Do these quality distinctions apply to another cohort of students and offer reliable information about how a student will do on a high stakes in the future?
Probability of Passing High School Exam based on Sequence of Teacher Effectiveness Experienced
Activity • Overview: • In this activity, you will brainstorm aspects of effective teaching and become familiar with Danielson’s Framework for Teaching as a tool to support improved practice.
Activity • Outcome: • You will understand the logic and structure of Danielson’s Framework for Teaching and the alignment between Danielson’s domains and the aspects of effective teaching they have identified, through your own experience.
Activity • Guiding Questions: • If you were to walk into a classroom, what might you see or hear there (from the students as well as the teacher) that would cause you to think that you were in the presence of an expert? • What are some of the key aspects of effective teaching? • What would make you think: “Oh, this is good; if I had a child this age, this is the class I would hope for.” • What are some of the key aspects of effective teaching? • Utilizing post-it notes (1 per aspect), write down key aspects of what you see in a high quality classroom, with a high quality teacher.
Activity • Now with a group of 4 – 5, share your post-its and sort them into groups of related items. Please label each group with one category heading.
Activity • One member from each group share your categories and present some of the brainstormed ideas included in each one. • As groups share, please think about similarities and differences do you see between the groups’ work? • What patterns do you notice?
22 Components Clustered into 4 Domains of Teaching Responsibility
PTHS Evaluation scale • The following has been taken from our PTHS evaluation tool, describing what “excellent” looks like for each component of Domain 1.
1a: Demonstrating Knowledge of Content and Pedagogy • Excellent: The teacher’s plans and practice reflect extensive knowledge of the content and the structure of the discipline. The teacher actively builds on knowledge of prerequisites and misconceptions when describing instruction or seeking causes for student misunderstanding.
1b: Demonstrating Knowledge of Students • Excellent: The teacher actively seeks knowledge of students’ backgrounds, cultures, skills, language proficiency, interests, and special needs, and attains this knowledge for groups and individual students.
1c: Setting Instructional Outcomes • Excellent: All instructional outcomes represent high-level learning in the discipline, reflecting rigorous learning and curriculum standards. They are clear, are written in the form of student learning, and permit viable methods of assessment. Outcomes reflect several different types of learning and, where appropriate, represent both coordination and integration. Outcomes are differentiated, in whatever way is needed, for individual students.
1d: Demonstrating Knowledge of Resources • Excellent: The teacher’s knowledge of resources for classroom use and for extending one’s professional skill is extensive, including those available through the school or district, in the community, through professional organizations and universities, and on the Internet.
1e: Designing Coherent Instruction • Excellent: The sequence of learning activities follows a coherent sequence, is aligned to instructional goals, and is designed to engage students in high-level cognitive activity. These are appropriately differentiated for individual learners. Instructional groups are varied appropriately, with some opportunity for student choice.
1f: Designing Student Assessments • Excellent: All the instructional outcomes may be assessed by the proposed assessment plan, with clear criteria for assessing student work. The plan contains evidence of student contribution to its development. Assessment methodologies have been adapted for individual students as the need has arisen. The approach to using formative assessment is well designed and includes student as well as teacher use of the assessment information.
2a: Creating an environment of respect and rapport • Excellent: Classroom interactions between teacher and students and among students are highly respectful, caring, and sensitivity to students as individuals. Students exhibit respect for the teacher and contribute to high levels of civility among all members of the class. The net result is an environment where all students feel valued and are comfortable taking intellectual risks.
2b: Establishing a culture for learning • Excellent: The classroom culture is a cognitively busy place, characterized by a shared belief in the importance of learning. The teacher conveys high expectations for learning for all students and insists on hard work; students assume responsibility for high quality by initiating improvements, making revisions, adding detail, and/or assisting peers in their precise use of language.
2c: Managing Classroom Procedures • Excellent: Instructional time is maximized due to efficient and seamless classroom routines and procedures. Students take initiative in the management of instructional groups and transitions, and/or the handling of materials and supplies. Routines are well understood and may be initiated by students.
2d: Managing Student Behavior • Excellent: Student behavior is appropriate. Students take an active role in monitoring their own behavior and/or that of other students against standards of conduct. Teacher monitoring of student behavior is subtle and preventive. The teacher’s response to student misbehavior is sensitive to individual student needs and respects students’ dignity.
2e: Organizing Physical Space • Excellent: The classroom environment is safe, and learning is accessible to all students, including those with special needs. The teacher makes effective use of physical resources, including technology. The teacher ensures that the physical arrangement is appropriate to the learning activities. Students inquire or contribute to the use or adaptation of technology or physical environment to advance learning.
3a: Communicating with students • Excellent: The teacher links the instructional purpose of the lesson to the larger curriculum; the directions and procedures are clear and anticipate possible student misunderstanding. The teacher’s explanation of content is thorough and clear, developing conceptual understanding through clear scaffolding and connecting with students’ interests. Students contribute to extending the content by explaining concepts to their classmates and suggesting strategies that might be used. The teacher’s spoken and written language is expressive, and the teacher finds opportunities to extend students’ vocabularies, both within the discipline and for more general use. Students contribute to the correct use of academic vocabulary.
3b: Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques • Excellent: The teacher uses a variety or series of questions or prompts to challenge students cognitively, advance high-level thinking and discourse, and promote metacognition. Students formulate many questions, initiate topics, challenge one another’s thinking, and make unsolicited contributions. Students themselves ensure that all voices are heard in the discussion.
3c: Engaging Students in Learning • Excellent: Virtually all students are intellectually engaged in challenging content through well-designed learning tasks and activities that require complex thinking by students. The teacher provides suitable scaffolding and challenges students to explain their thinking. There is evidence of some student initiation of inquiry and student contributions to the exploration of important content; students may serve as resources for one another. The lesson has a clearly defined structure, and the pacing of the lesson provides students the time needed not only to intellectually engage with and reflect upon their learning but also to consolidate their understanding.
3d: Using Assessment in Instruction • Excellent: Assessment is fully integrated into instruction, through extensive use of formative assessment. Students are aware of the assessment criteria. There is evidence that they have contributed to the assessment criteria, when appropriate. Questions and assessments are used regularly to diagnose evidence of learning by individual students. A variety of forms of feedback, from both teacher and peers, is accurate and specific and advances learning. Students self-assess and monitor their own progress. The teacher successfully differentiates instruction to address individual students’ misunderstandings.
3e: Demonstrating flexibility and responsiveness • Excellent: The teacher seizes an opportunity to enhance learning on a spontaneous event or students’ interests, or successfully adjusts and differentiates instruction to address individual student misunderstandings. Using an extensive repertoire of instructional strategies and soliciting additional resources from the school or community, the teacher persists in seeking effective approaches for students who need help.
4a: Reflecting on Teaching • Excellent: Teacher’s reflection on the lesson is thoughtful and accurate, citing specific evidence. Teacher draws on an extensive repertoire to suggest alternative strategies and predicting the likely success of each.
4b: Maintaining Accurate Records • Excellent: The teacher’s system for maintaining information on student completion of assignments, student progress in learning, and non-instructional records is fully effective. Students contribute information and participate in maintaining the records.
4c: Communicating with Families • Excellent: The teacher communicates frequently with families in a sensitive manner, with students contributing to the communication. The teacher responds to family concerns with professionalism and sensitivity. The teacher’s efforts to engage families in the instructional program are frequent.
4d: Participating in a Professional Community • Excellent: The teacher’s relationships with colleagues are characterized by mutual support and cooperation. Teacher makes a substantial contribution to the professional community, to school and district events and projects, and assumes a leadership role among the faculty.
4e: Growing and Developing Professionally • Excellent: The teacher seeks out opportunities for professional development and makes a systematic effort to implement strategies learned. The teacher solicits feedback on practice from both supervisors and colleagues. The teacher participates actively in assisting other educators and looks for ways to contribute to the profession.
4f: Showing Professionalism • Excellent: The teacher can be counted on to hold the highest standards of honesty, integrity, and confidentiality and takes a leadership role with colleagues. The teacher is highly proactive in serving students, seeking out resources when needed. The teacher makes a concerted effort to challenge negative attitudes or practices to ensure that all students, particularly those traditionally underserved, are honored in the school. The teacher takes a leadership role in team or departmental decision making and helps ensure that such decisions are based on the highest professional standards. The teacher complies fully with school and district regulations, taking a leadership role with colleagues.
22 Components Clustered into 4 Domains of Teaching Responsibility
Evaluation tool • On the handout provided, you can see the new evaluation tool that we will use here. Please take a moment to read through some of the components and identify the differences between the four levels. Do you see any patterns?
Digging Into the Domains – Common Themes • Equity • Cultural sensitivity • High expectations • Developmental appropriateness • Accommodating individual needs • Appropriate use of technology • Student Assumption of responsibility
Activity - • At your table, assign each member (can be more than one if the numbers don’t work out), to a common theme. Looking through the elements (use slide 27), which items would your common theme fall under (could be multiple) • Please write down the Domain, the component and the element • Example: Planning and Preparation - 1a: Demonstrating Knowledge of Content and Pedagogy – Content Pedagogy) • Theme Reminder: Equity, Cultural sensitivity, High expectations, Developmental appropriateness, Accommodating individual needs, Appropriate use of technology, Student Assumption of responsibility
Equity • Valued • Invited and encouraged to participate • Given feedback • Expected to work to their potential (w/o) preconceived ideas about abilities)
Cultural Sensitivity • Recognizing different cultures of students • Learning about students’ backgrounds • Lesson is prepared and presented to suit varied cultures