21st Century College English: Book 4 Unit 6: Part A The EQ Factor
Unit 6: Part A • Pre-Reading Activities • Text A: Language Points • Exercises • Assignment The EQ Factor
Pre-Reading Activities • Preview • Pre-Reading Listening
Pre-Reading Activities Preview Why is it that the person who is the smartest in school is not usually the most successful in life? It may be because intelligence is only one of the factors that it takes to have a well-balanced,successful life. First, “The EQ Factor” reports on a book by Daniel Goleman which argues that the ability to understand and manage one’s feelings is actually much more important than simply being smart. In “What’s Your Emotional IQ?” Goleman himself explains why it is “emotional intelligence that separates the stars from the average performers” and identifies five skills which are keys to developing your own abilities in this area. Finally, “A Classic Study of Environmental Influence” makes a strong case for the importance of a stimulating environment in helping a child to develop to the best of his or her ability.
Pre-Reading Activities Before listening to the passage, have a quick look at the following words. Then listen to the passage again and choose the best answers to the following questions. sock 短袜 EQ 情商 empathy 同情 Check-up
Pre-Reading Activities 1. The listening passage says that Einstein was a genius in terms of ________? A) Emotional Intelligence or “EQ”. B) Intellectual Intelligence or “IQ”. C) both “EQ” and “IQ”. D) neither “EQ” nor “IQ”. 1. The listening passage says that Einstein was a genius in terms of ________? A) Emotional Intelligence or “EQ”. B) Intellectual Intelligence or “IQ”. C) both “EQ” and “IQ”. D) neither “EQ” nor “IQ”.
Pre-Reading Activities 2. Which of the following is NOT an example of Emotional Intelligence? A) Understanding your own feelings. B) Understanding the feelings of others. C) Being able to handle emotions effectively. D) Being smarter than others in your class. 2. Which of the following is NOT an example of Emotional Intelligence? A) Understanding your own feelings. B) Understanding the feelings of others. C) Being able to handle emotions effectively. D) Being smarter than others in your class.
Pre-Reading Activities 3. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between EQ and IQ? A) People tend to have more of one than the other. B) People tend to have the same amount of each. C) They work together to make you successful. D) They depend on such factors as social class and how lucky you are. 3. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between EQ and IQ? A) People tend to have more of one than the other. B) People tend to have the same amount of each. C) They work together to make you successful. D) They depend on such factors as social class and how lucky you are.
Pre-Reading Activities 4. What is the main purpose of this passage? A) To introduce a new concept, EQ, and explains its significance. B) To explain why EQ is more important in life than IQ. C) To discuss different definitions of success. D) To criticize traditional notions of intelligence. 4. What is the main purpose of this passage? A) To introduce a new concept, EQ, and explains its significance. B) To explain why EQ is more important in life than IQ. C) To discuss different definitions of success. D) To criticize traditional notions of intelligence. Script
Pre-Reading Activities When we think of a person with great intelligence, the first image that comes to mind might be someone like Albert Einstein, who changed world’s conception of space and time, but usually went around with uncombed hair and socks that didn’t match. Clearly, Einstein was a great genius. But did you ever wonder if there was more to life than pure intellectual intelligence? Scientists have recently begun to do so. It seems that intellectual ability cannot explain some of the most interesting questions: Why is it that the smartest kid in school does not usually end up the wealthiest? Why can some people keep smiling as they face difficulties that would sink others? In short, why do some people just seem to have a gift for living well? Researchers have developed a theory that there are actually two kinds of intelligence. The first is the traditional “intellectual intelligence” or “IQ” that a person like Einstein had so much of. Now the phrase “emotional intelligence”, sometimes referred to as “EQ”, has been introduced to describe qualities like understanding one’s own feelings, having empathy for the feelings of others, and being able to handle emotions effectively. EQ is not the opposite of IQ. Some people are blessed with a lot of both. Some people have little of either one. What researchers are now trying to understand is how the two kinds of intelligence work together. For example, how one’s ability to handle stress affects the ability to concentrate and put one’s knowledge to use. It seems that IQ accounts for about 20% of one’s success in life; the rest depends on everything from the social class you are born in, to how lucky you are, to the way your brain is wired. And, of course, on how well developed your Emotional Intelligence is.
Language Points Text A: The EQ Factor
Language Points The EQ Factor Nancy Gibbs 1 It turns out that a scientist can see the future by watching four-year-olds interact with a marshmallow. The researcher invites the children, one by one, into a plain room and begins the gentle torment. You can have this marshmallow right now, he says. But if you wait while I run an errand, you can have two marshmallows when I get back. And then he leaves.
Language Points 2 Some children grab for the treat the minute he's out the door. Some last a few minutes before they give in. But others are determined to wait. They cover their eyes; they put their heads down; they sing to themselves; they try to play games or even fall asleep. When the researcher returns, he gives these children their hard-earned marshmallows. And then, science waits for them to grow up. 3 By the time the children reach high school, something remarkable has happened. A survey of the children's parents and teachers found that those who as four-year-olds had enough self-control to hold out for the second marshmallow generally grew up to be better adjusted, more popular, adventurous, confident and dependable teenagers.
Language Points The children who gave in to temptation early on were more likely to be lonely, easily frustrated and stubborn. They could not endure stress and shied away from challenges. And when some of the students in the two groups took the Scholastic Aptitude Test, the kids who had held out longer scored an average of 210 points higher. 4When we think of brilliance we see Einstein, deep-eyed, woolly haired, a thinking machine with skin and mismatched socks. High achievers, we imagine, were wired for greatness from birth. But then you have to wonder why, over time, natural talent seems to ignite in some people and dim in others. This is where the marshmallows come in. It seems that the ability to delay gratification is a master skill, a triumph of the reasoning brain over the impulsive one. It is a sign, in short, of emotional intelligence. And it doesn't show up on an IQ test.
Language Points 5 For most of this century, scientists have worshipped the hardware of the brain and the software of the mind; the messy powers of the heart were left to the poets. But cognitive theory could simply not explain the questions we wonder about most: why some people just seem to have a gift for living well; why the smartest kid in the class will probably not end up the richest; why we like some people virtually on sight and distrust others; why some people remain upbeat in the face of troubles that would sink a less resilient soul. What qualities of the mind or spirit, in short, determine who succeeds?
Language Points 6 The phrase "emotional intelligence" was coined by Yale psychologist Peter Salovey and the University of New Hampshire's John Mayer five years ago to describe qualities like understanding one's own feelings, empathy for the feelings of others and "the regulation of emotion in a way that enhances living." Their notion is about to bound into the national conversation, handily shortened to EQ, thanks to a new book, Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman. Goleman, a Harvard psychology Ph.D. and a New York Times science writer with a gift for making even the most difficult scientific theories digestible to lay readers, has brought together a decade's worth of behavioral research into how the mind processes feelings. His goal, he announces on the cover, is to redefine what it
Language Points means to be smart. His thesis: when it comes to predicting people's success, brainpower as measured by IQ and standardized achievement tests may actually matter less than the qualities of mind once thought of as "character" before the word began to sound old-fashioned. 7 At first glance, there would seem to be little that's new here to any close reader of fortune cookies. There may be no less original idea than the notion that our hearts hold dominion over our heads. "I was so angry," we say, "I couldn't think straight." Neither is it surprising that "people skills" are useful, which amounts to saying, it's good to be nice. "It's so true it's trivial," says Dr. Paul McHugh, director of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. But if it were that simple, the book would not be quite so interesting or its implications so controversial.
Language Points 8 This is no abstract investigation. Goleman is looking for antidotes to restore "civility to our streets and caring to our communal life.” He sees practical applications everywhere for how companies should decide whom to hire, how couples can increase the odds that their marriages will last, how parents should raise their children and how schools should teach them. When street gangs substitute for families and schoolyard insults end in stabbings, when more than half of marriages end in divorce, when the majority of the children murdered in this country are killed by parents and stepparents, many of whom say they were trying to discipline the child for behavior like blocking the TV or crying too much, it suggests a demand for remedial emotional education.
Language Points 9 And it is here the arguments will break out. Goleman's highly popularized conclusions, says McHugh, "will chill any veteran scholar of psychotherapy and any neuroscientist who worries about how his research may come to be applied." While many researchers in this relatively new field are glad to see emotional issues finally taken seriously, they fear that a notion as handy as EQ invites misuse. Goleman admits the danger of suggesting that you can assign a numerical value to a person's character as well as his intellect; Goleman never even uses the phrase EQ in his book.
Language Points But he did somewhat reluctantly approve an "unscientific" EQ test in USA Today with choices like "I am aware of even subtle feelings as I have them," and "I can sense the pulse of a group or relationship and state unspoken feelings." 10 "You don't want to take an average of your emotional skill," argues Harvard psychology professor Jerome Kagan, a pioneer in child-development research. "That's what's wrong with the concept of intelligence for mental skills too. Some people handle anger well
Language Points but can't handle fear. Some people can't take joy. So each emotion has to be viewed differently." EQ is not the opposite of IQ. Some people are blessed with a lot of both, some with little of either. What researchers have been trying to understand is how they complement each other; how one's ability to handle stress, for instance, affects the ability to concentrate and put intelligence to use. Among the ingredients for success, researchers now generally agree that IQ counts for about 20%; the rest depends on everything from class to luck to the neural pathways that have developed in the brain over millions of years of human evolution. (1047 words)
Text-related information Nancy Gibbs, Senior Editor of TIME Magazine. In 1988 she became a feature writer, whose award-winning cover stories include The Right to Die; Violence in America; Teens, Sex and Values; The Tragedy in Waco; and The 1993 Men of the Year. Nancy Gibbs
a scientist can see the future by watching four-year-olds interact with a marshmallow — a scientist can predict the future of a child by studying how the child reacts to a piece of candy at the age of four interact (with) — vi.communicative (with) or react (to) Examples: • It’s interesting at parties to see how people interact socially. •Modern architects are designing buildings for the future which will interact with the user.
a plain room — a room with simple decoration; an undecorated room plain— a. not decorated or luxurious; ordinary and simple Examples: • a plain and very elegant room •plain cake (i.e. without fruit) • plain chocolate (i.e. made without adding milk)
the gentle torment — the tender mental suffering from being tempted by a marshmallow Examples: • Scream were heard of men dying in torment. • He suffered years of private torment over his wrong decision • He thought public speaking was a torment to him. • They expressed sympathy with the suffering of the earthquake victims. • She described her suffering at the hands of the terrorists. torment and suffering Torment is extreme physical or mental suffering, esp. mental suffering that lasts a long time and is caused by feeling guilty or sorry about something one has done, while suffering implies the awareness or experience of a person of a lot of pain or bad treatment.
run/go on an errand — be away on some business errand— n. a short journey either to take a message or to deliver or collect something Examples: • The children are old enough to run on errands to the shops. •I’ve no time to go on errands for you
some children grab for the treat the minute he’s out the door — some children snatched at the candy as soon as he’s out the room treat— n. (here referring to the marshmallows) something especially pleasant or enjoyable Examples: • A meal in a good restaurant is a real treat. •We’re going to Italy for the weekend — it’s my birthday treat.
some children grab for the treat the minute he’s out the door — some children snatched at the candy as soon as he’s out the room the minute— n. (used to introduce a clause of time) as soon as Examples: • Ask for help the minute you’re stuck. •I knew it the minute I saw him.
And then, science waits for them to grow up — and after that, the study is subject to pause until they grow up Translate the sentence: ? 然后，科学便等待他们长大。
A survey of the children's parents and teachers found that those who as four-year-olds had enough self-control to hold out for the second marshmallow generally grew up to be better adjusted, more popular, adventurous, confident and dependable teenagers. Examples: • After the survey I decided not to buy the house. • Surveys show that 75% of people approve of that new law. • An investigation by airline officials show that the crash was caused by human error. • The army is carrying out an investigation into the explosion. survey and investigation Survey often implies a detailed inspection by the eyes or the mind, while investigation applies to inquiry which aims at uncovering the facts and establish the truth.
A survey of the children's parents and teachers found that those who as four-year-olds had enough self-control to hold out for the second marshmallow generally grew up to be better adjusted, more popular, adventurous, confident and dependable teenagers. hold out for — refuse to accept sth. which one thinks is not adequate, and continue to demand more Examples: • The strikes held out for better pay and conditions. • Be careful, the dealers may hold out for a higher price.
A survey of the children's parents and teachers found that those who as four-year-olds had enough self-control to hold out for the second marshmallow generally grew up to be better adjusted, more popular, adventurous, confident and dependable teenagers. Paraphrase ? Translate the sentence: ? An investigation conducted among the children’s parents and teachers showed that children who had enough self-control to wait and have the second piece of candy at the age of four usually become mentally more balanced and more able to cope with problems in life, more popular, adventurous, confident and dependable, when they grow up. 对孩子们的家长和老师的调查表明，那些在四岁时就有足够的自制力坚持等到第二粒果汁软糖的孩子，长大后大多成了适应性更强，更惹人喜爱，富于冒险精神，充满自信并可信赖的青少年。
The children who gave in to temptation early on were more likely to be lonely, easily frustrated and stubborn. — the children who grabbed for the candy as soon as the researcher was out the door were more likely to be lonely, easily defeated and stubborn. give in to temptation— fail to resist temptation early on— soon after the start of something Examples: • Their role in the strike had become evident early on. •I knew early on in the film I was not going to enjoy it.
Text-related information The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), an examination for US high school students, consists of verbal and mathematical aptitude tests administered nationwide. The test results determine eligibility for admission to many colleges as well as for scholarship awards. SAT 学习能力倾向测验
When we think of brilliance we see Einstein, deep-eyed, woolly haired, a thinking machine with skin and mismatched socks. Paraphrase ? When we think of intelligence, we have in mind the image of Einstein: with deep eyes and wool-like hair, wearing socks that don’t make a pair, like a thinking machine in the shape of human being. Translate the sentence: ? 当我们想到卓越的才华时，我们便看见了爱因斯坦，深邃的眼睛，卷曲的头发，一台有着皮肤，穿着不配对短袜的思维机器。
High achievers, we imagine, were wired for greatness from birth — we believe that highly successful people were born to become great. To wire an electric device is to equip it with electric wires or circuits. In figurative use, when high achievers are compared to “thinking machines”, they can certainly be wired too, meaning equipped or prepared. Translate the sentence: ? 在我们的想象中，事业上取得巨大成功者在出生时就为伟大做好了准备。
This is where the marshmallows come in. — This show how the marshmallows are related with it. When you say This is where something or someone comes in, you are stating how something or someone is involved with a situation. Examples: • This is where my husband comes in. • This is where legislation comes in.
the ability to delay gratification is a master skill, a triumph of the reasoning brain over the impulsive one — the ability to hold out for the treat or to wait until a later time for something enjoyable is an important skill, an instance of how a person’s careful thinking defeats his sudden desire in making a judgement. Gratificationsuggest strong satisfaction (of a wish or need) and positively implies pleasure. Examples: • Some people expect instant gratification. • He seems to get gratification from beating people up.
And it doesn’t show up on an IQ test — And for it, no points are given in an IQ test. show up — appear on a measuring scale or be able to be noticed. Examples: • Small differences in temperature also show up. • Only three of the people we invited to the party didn’t show up.
scientists have worshipped the hardware of the brain and the software of the mind; the messy powers of the heart were left to the poets. Examples: • He is nice, but he hasn’t much brain. • That can’t be the right way to do it – use your brain! • The study of logic trains the mind. • You must be strong in mind and body. • He said he’d never marry but he had a change of heart (= his feelings changed) when he met her. • It breaks my heart (=makes me feel very sad) to see him so unhappy. brain, mind and heart Brain focuses attention on powers of comprehension of thinking and is used to refer to intelligence, mind indicates man’s powers involved in perceiving, remembering, considering, evaluating and deciding in contrast to physical powers, while heart denotes the deepest and strongest of man’s feelings and emotions.
scientists have worshipped the hardware of the brain and the software of the mind; the messy powers of the heart were left to the poets. Paraphrase ? Scientists have been devoted to the study of the organ of the body brain and the powers of the mind, while the complicated human feelings and emotions were left to be dealt with by the poets. Translate the sentence: ? 科学家们都崇尚大脑硬件和思想软件；而心灵的捉摸不定的力量则留给了诗人。
wonder about — have doubts about Examples: • I’m wondering about Jack’s heath recently. • Many people have been wondering out loud (=expressing doubts in public) about the prime minister’s competence in the handling of this crisis.
we like some people virtually on sight — we like some people almost the first time we met them Translate the sentence: ? 我们一见到某些人就喜欢
some people remain upbeat in the face of troubles that would sink a less resilient soul. in the face of — 1) despite; 2) confronted by Examples: • He succeed in the face of great danger. • Martha left home in the face of strong opposition form her parents. • No one wanted to surrender in the face of invasion. • In primitive times, men found themselves powerless in the face of nature.
some people remain upbeat in the face of troubles that would sink a less resilient soul. A soulis a person, esp. a person of particular kind. Examples: • She was a kind and generous soul. • Some poor soul will be looking for these keys.
some people remain upbeat in the face of troubles that would sink a less resilient soul. Paraphrase ? Some people are still optimistic and cheerful even when faced with troubles, and such troubles would make those who are less adaptable feel frustrated. Translate the sentence: ? 面对苦难，一个适应性差的人会被压垮，而另一些人则能保持乐观。
empathy for the feelings of others — we like some people almost the first time we met them empathy and sympathy Sympathy is a feeling, but empathy is an ability, an ability to share someone else’s feelings as if they were one’s own, it is a symptom of some senses of sympathy. Examples: • Out of sympathy for the homeless children, she gave them shelter for the night. • What he lacks is empathy, the ability to put himself in the other fellow’s place. • She could see our sadness, our empathy with the pain she was suffering.
the regulation of emotion in a way that enhances living —the control of emotion so that the quality of life is improved. Translate the sentence: ? 以提高生活质量的方式调节情绪
Their notion is about to bound into the national conversation…. — their concept will soon become a topic of conversation popular in the whole country…. bound into — jump into, get into Translate the sentence: ? 他们的概念（缩写为情商）即将成为全国的热门话题。
Text-related information Daniel Goleman is founder of Emotional Intelligence Services in Boston and a psychologist on the brain and behavior sciences. His 1995 book, Emotional Intelligence, argues that human competencies like self-awareness, self-discipline, persistence and empathy are of greater consequence than IQ in much of life, and that children can – and should – be taught these abilities Daniel Goleman