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Energy Efficiency

Energy Efficiency

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Energy Efficiency

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  1. Energy Efficiency Changing the Impact of Energy Usage

  2. What Is Energy Efficiency? • Webster’s defines efficiency as : • The quality or degree of being productive without waste • When we talk about energy efficiency, we talk about improving the efficiency of the energy we use • The common theme amongst energy experts: • Reducing energy or demand requirements without reducing the end-use benefits.

  3. Conservation Made Simple • “If y’don’t need it, turn the durn thing off.” • Fred Tuttle

  4. What Do We Use Energy for? Light Electricity Heat Fuel Energy is used to do work

  5. Efficient Pollution The efficient level of pollution is that which balances the costs imposed by pollution against the benefits derived from the activity which produces the emissions. MD=Environmental Damage= Costs of Pollution MAC= Abatement Cost= benefits when waste is reduced Pollution costs:Abating Costs: Human health Reducing Emissions Amenity costs Waste-reducing measures Materials damage Ex: employing less polluting Biological technologies + all other costs • MD is zero at levels of waste below assimilative • Capacity. • This graph represents a balance between two extreme possibilities, one that pays no attention to environmental damage e_, and one which pays no attention to the costs involved with said valued activity, which produces emissions, eA.

  6. Economic Policy on Efficiency • MSB schedule represents the benefit associated with devoting resources to a particular activity z. This slope is negative, reflecting diminishing marginal benefit from activity z. • The MSC schedule represents the cost of devoting resources to that activity. The positive slope of the MSC reflects an increasing cost of taking resources away from some alternate activity. • Assume z’<z*. A small increase to z will yield a benefit equal to MSB(z*). This would equal the cost to MSC(z’)<MSB(z*). • If we choose a level of activity z”>z*, a reduction in z will mean a reduced benefit equal to MSB(z”). An even larger reduction in cost will equal MSC(z”)>MSB(z”). • Thus, making z* efficient. • MSC(z’) = MSB(z*) • MSC= Marginal Social Cost • MSB= Marginal Social Benefit • Z= Resource to be allocated • This condition states that we should allocate resources in such a way that the marginal cost of any reallocation are equated • This is our efficiency condition.

  7. Energy Efficiency at a National Level

  8. Current Federal Energy- Efficiency Related Policies • National Energy Policy • The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy • Energy Star Program • The Weatherization Assistance Program

  9. National Energy Policy • "America must have an energy policy that plans for the future, but meets the needs of today.  I believe we can develop our natural resources and protect our environment.“ President George W. Bush

  10. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy • “Bringing you a prosperous future where energy is clean, abundant, reliable, and affordable.” • Mission: • strengthen America's energy security, environmental quality, and economic vitality in public-private partnerships that: enhance energy efficiency and productivity, • bring clean, reliable and affordable energy technologies to the marketplace, • enhance the energy choices and quality of life of Americans • The office is responsible for the government’s research, development, and deployment efforts in energy efficiency.

  11. Energy Star Program • In 1992 the EPA introduced the Energy Star as a voluntary labeling program designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products. • Computers and monitors were the first labeled products.

  12. Energy Star Cont’d • 1995 the EPA expanded the label to additional office equipment products and residential heating and cooling equipment. • 1996 the EPA partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy. • 2001 Energy Star crosses the border into Canada. • By 2003 almost 1400 buildings have earned the Energy Star for superior energy performance.

  13. Weatherization Assistance Program • Program’s goal is to allow low-income families to permanently reduce their energy bills by making their homes more energy efficient. • On average, weatherization reduces heating bills by 31% and overall energy bills by $218 per year. • In 2004, their goal is to weatherize 94,450 homes.

  14. Earth Day 2004 • “Smart energy, choices for the future.” – DOE’s theme for Earth Day 2004. • DOE is promoting a message which highlights renewable energy and smart energy choices as a way to expand our nation's energy supply, create a healthier environment, and increase national security. •

  15. Energy Smart America 2004 p:/ • May 11-14 in Minneapolis, MN. • Hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy. • The goal of this project is to is to advance state and community energy-saving efforts and deployment of sustainable energy solutions.

  16. California Sues National Gov’t • CA, along with NY, CT, and various environmental groups are filing a lawsuit against the Bush administration because they have called for the DOE to postpone the implementation of high energy efficiency requirements for central air conditioners. • The DEO announced it would propose a significantly weaker energy efficiency standard. Under the Bush administration's lower efficiency target, energy and cost savings and pollution reductions would be one-third less than the standard that was to take effect already this year.

  17. California Attorney General Bill Lockyer, "Instead of helping, the Bush Administration is making it harder for California in the current energy crisis by ignoring or trying to eliminate the toughened efficiency standards for residential air conditioners.“ • New York Attorney General Eliot Spitzer added: "This is a time when the federal government should be doing everything possible to encourage the efficient use of energy. Instead, the Bush administration has abandoned one of the most effective ways to conserve energy.”

  18. Home Energy Audit • Available from Efficiency Vermont, or your utility company • Inputs data from utility bills, house design,household appliance make-up, and occupants’ habits • Compares to similar homes in area • Identifies potential problem areas • Offers tips to help reduce usage • Suggests energy efficient products

  19. Typical Energy Efficiency Approaches

  20. Energy Bill for Houses in South Burlington, Vermont Average House - $2201 PotentialSavings$1070 Based on the zip code you entered, here is a comparison of the energy costsof an average home and an energy-efficient home in your area. Base Case Energy Efficient House Efficient House - $1131 WholeHouse $ $2211 $1131 See greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption      Heating      Cooling      Water Heating      Major Appliances      Lighting      Small Appliances Energy 6112 kWh & 1084 gal. Oil 4099 kWh &430 gal. of Oil Pollution 29757 lb. CO2 13331 lb. CO2 Heating $ $1234 $495 Energy 879 kWh & 851 gal. Oil 324 kWh &313 gallons Pollution 19808 lb. CO2 7289 lb. CO2 Cooling $ $10 $0 Energy 75 kWh 0 kWh Pollution 68 lb. CO2 0 lb. CO2 HotWater $ $307 $154 Energy 233 gal. Oil 117 gallons Pollution 5205 lb. CO2 2619 lb. CO2 MajorAppliances $ $345 $224 Energy 2696 kWh &0 Gallons of oil 1753 kWh Pollution 2444 lb. CO2 1589 lb. CO2 Lighting $ $113 $56 Energy 879 kWh 440 kWh Pollution 797 lb. CO2 399 lb. CO2 Misc. $ $203 $202 Energy 1583 kWh 1583 kWh Pollution 1435 lb. CO2 1435 lb. CO2 Energy Bills in Burlington

  21. Not Using It? Unplug It. • Small appliances and home office equipment use power even when they're off. That's why the average US household pays for 50 watts, constantly, that isn't needed. • Even fully charged rechargeable equipment draws electricity when plugged in. • Plug TVs, VCRs, fax machines, computers, printers, etc. into a power strip and just turn it off.

  22. Energy in Computers • Computers and other electronic office equipment represent the fastest-growing electrical load • Desktop computers use 80–160 watts of electricity • Laptop models typically use a maximum of 15 watts • Designed for long battery life • A 1993 study by the Land Institute estimates that it takes up to 4,000 kilowatt-hours—nearly half the average American household’s annual consumption of electricity—to manufacture a PC and monitor

  23. Take a Nap If all 8,000 computer monitors on the UVM campus used Sleep Mode the University could save 1.6 million kWh every year. That is equal to saving 64,000 gallons of gasoline and $160,000 in energy costs.

  24. Change a Light… • ENERGY STAR program instituted in Fall 2003 • Encourages all Americans to change out the 5 fixtures or light bulbs they use most at home to ENERGY STAR qualified lighting • Would result in $6 billion in energy savings • Equal to one trillion pounds of greenhouse gases not in the air • Energy savings equivalent to output of 21 power plants

  25. …Change the World • Efficiency Vermont recognized for implementing the program by giving all residents of Poultney Village an efficient light bulb and promoting to change it • More than 4,500 incandescent light bulbs were replaced • Just one bulb replaced per American household would be the same as removing one million cars from the road

  26. What Does One Light Bulb Mean? Let’s say my bathroom light is on for an average of four hours a day. Two of the four hours there is no one in the bathroom using the light…my roommate never turns it off! 2 hours x 365 days x .12 dollars per kWh x light bulb wattage (kW)= 60 watt incandescent = $5.26 year 13 watt CFL = $1.14 year This is a savings of $4.12 for the year, just for the time no one is actually using the light. Another $1.14 and 9.5 kW could be saved if he learned to turn it off

  27. UVM’s Energy Breakdown Electricity Use Energy Use

  28. UVM’s Efficiency Impact • Energy Efficiency measures in the 1990’s in partnership with Burlington Electric Department (BED) resulted in: • Avoidance of 16 GWh of electricity ($1.6 million) in 2002 • Reduction of 6,700 tons of carbon dioxide emissions (equal to 15,000 cars off the road) • Reduction of 36 tons of sulfur dioxide • Reduction of 12 tons of nitrogen oxides

  29. Efficiency or Conservation? “More bang for your buck.” OR Turn it off

  30. Meeting Our Energy Needs • What to do? • Produce more • Use it more efficiently • Use less

  31. Fuel Oil $.08 Natural Gas $.09 Other $.02 Electricity $.81 Why Focus on Electricity? Every kilowatt of electricity used requires generation that dumps 1.17 pounds of CO2 into our air. (EPA) Energy Costs for Commercial Buildings in New England Source: Energy Information Agency

  32. Golden Kilawatt Partnership • Started by Paul Grover, of Shelburne, VT • Basic Idea: turn off lights not needed in the workplace • Conservation of 30-45% of electricity bill • Return on investment within 3 months • Typical Business: • Chittenden County • Electricity bill greater than $30,000/yr • Top management committed

  33. Energy Efficiency Resources • • • • • • Your local utility company: • •