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Energy Efficiency

Energy Efficiency

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Energy Efficiency

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  1. Energy Efficiency Electricity, Economy, Environment

  2. Energy Efficiency • The Student shall be able to: • Determine the local-global or ethical implications of high versus low power related to some field. • Elaborate Ethical categories: Virtue, Deontology, Utility, and Egoism • Develop a graph comparing power utilization. • Calculate KWH and the greenhouse gas emissions per KWH (in lab). • Define how transistors, voltage, frequency relate to power usage. • Describe two methods within Dynamic Power Scaling to reduce power in processors, networks, etc. • Define voltage, current, resistance, volts, amps, ohms. • Recite ohm’s law • Work with a Volt-Meter: Kill-a-Watt (in lab and/or project).

  3. ABET Undergrad Learning Outcomes

  4. Intro To Ethics:Consider an Ethical Dilemma And Your Solution

  5. Ethical Classifications • Egoism: Right action is determined by what is in the individual’s self-interest. • “An efficient design will allow me to make buckets of money.” • Real Ethics • Virtue Ethics: Right action is that which promotes human flourishing. • “That is what a good engineer does.” • Deontology: Right action is that which is done from duty. • “It is my duty to be efficient.” • Consequentialism/Utility:Right action is that which creates the greatest happiness. • “This will allow the most number of people to have access to and to utilize our products.”

  6. Egoism – Self-Interest – Not Ethics Right action is determined by what is in the individual’s self-interest. An egoist: “an efficient design will allow me to make buckets of money.” Example: • Using lead to create circuit boards introduces a deadly toxin to our water supply; • I drink from that water supply; • therefore, I don’t want to use lead to create circuit boards. This is both reasonable and practical but not clearly ethical People act in their own interest naturally. Is she acting ethically or just to save her own skin?

  7. Virtue Ethics: Aristotle • Right action is that which promotes human flourishing. • Virtue Ethicist: “Striving for Excellence is what a good engineer does.” • Generally you could ask yourself: • In the best world, what would your design look like? • Would your role model approve of this design? • More Specifically: • Would the person of good character exploit workers in a foreign country in order to make products affordable in the US? • Would a good engineer design a product that uses as much power as it can draw or would he strive for efficiency?

  8. Deontology – Immanuel Kant Right action is that which is done from duty. A Deontologist: “it is my duty to be efficient.” Kant prohibits actions if they produce a contradiction when implemented in a universalized way. Example: • Lying is Self-Contradictory: the point of a lie is to pass off untruth as truth; • If we universalize lying so that everyone lies then no one will accept our untruths as truth; • So, lying, when universalized, contradicts itself. For duty, one asks: “can my rule of action be universalized without contradiction?” • Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. • Would everyone be able to employ a design like this one? • Can every nation on the planet use as much power as the U.S.?

  9. UTILITY/Consequentialism – John Stuart Mill Right action is that which creates the greatest happiness. A Utilitarian: “it will allow the most number of people to have access to and to utilize our products.” “Will this produce more happiness than the alternatives?” There is no tenable argument that can show that my happiness is worth more than your happiness A Utilitarian must accept that her happiness is not more important than anyone else’s Example: iPhones have made hundreds of thousands of Americans happy, but if tens of thousands of Chinese that are employed to make them are more unhappy than the happiness we Americans receive, then we should not buy them.

  10. analyze the local and global impact of computing on individuals, organizations, and society • Local: impacts a local organization and/or the region. • National: Impacts the nation • e.g., increased economic measures: GNP, increased competitiveness, cleaner environment. • Global: Impacts one or more external nations or world conditions • e.g., energy, poverty, environment, world peace.

  11. Which Ethical ReasoningDrives You?

  12. Global-Local Impact – of Energy Ethics, Climate Change, EconomicS

  13. Hot, Flat, and CrowdedThomas L Friedman • Why Citibank, Iceland’s Banks, and the Ice Banks of Antarctica All Melted Down at the Same Time • Consumer America • “At it’s core, the China-America growth engine worked like this: We in America built more and more stores, to sell more and more stuff, made in more and more Chinese factories, powered by more and more coal, and all those sales produced more dollars, which China used to buy more and more U.S. Treasure Bills, which allowed the Federal Reserve to extend more and more easy credit to more and more banks, consumers, and businesses, so that more and more Americans could purchase more and more homes, and all those sales drove home prices higher and higher,…” GHG Per Capita Emission Rates (tons): US 20 England, Japan 10 Average 4.3 India 1 Key World Energy Statistics 2008, World Energy Outlook

  14. Hot, Flat, and CrowdedThomas L Friedman • 2. Dumb As We Wanna Be • Economic History: Living for our own Wealth • “The era we have entered is one of enormous social, political, and economic change – driven in part by the Market and in part by Mother Nature. If we want things to stay as they are – that is, if we want to maintain our technological, economic, and moral leadership, and a habitable planet, rich with flora and fauna, leopards and lions, and human communities that can grow in a sustainable way – things will have to change around here, and fast.”

  15. Hot, Flat, and CrowdedThomas L Friedman • 3. The Re-Generation • Michael Dell (Founder): People of all ages interested in renewable resources, recycling, and sustainability. • “The Re-Generation’s task is to do nothing less than help repair both the Market and Mother Nature by bringing the concept and the values of “sustainability” to both realms”

  16. Hot, Flat, and CrowdedThomas L Friedman • 4. Today’s Date: 1 E.C.E • Today’s Weather: Hot, Flat, and Crowded • E.C.E: Energy-Climate Era: A high level view of issues: • Energy and Natural Resources: Supply and Demand • Petrodictatorship • Climate Change • Energy Poverty • Biodiversity Loss

  17. Hot, Flat, and CrowdedThomas L Friedman • 5. Our Carbon Copies (or, Too Many Americans) • “I certainly don’t blame the citizens of Doha or Dalian for aspiring to an American lifestyle…” • “Does that mean we don’t want people to live like us anymore? No. It means that we have to take the lead in redesigning and reinventing what living like us means – what constitutes the “American way” in energy and resource consumption terms.” Previous: US & Europe Now: + India + China 2030: As shown

  18. Hot, Flat, and CrowdedThomas L Friedman • 6. Fill ‘Er Up With Dictators • Oil & Islam • “The Saudi Government set out to evangelize the Islamic world, using the billions of riyals at its disposal through the religious tax – zakat – to construct hundreds of mosques and colleges and thousands of religious schools around the globe, staffed with Wahhabi Imams, and teachers. Eventually, Saudi Arabia, which constitutes only 1 % of the world Muslim population, would support 90% of the expenses of the entire faith, overriding other traditions of Islam. Music disappeared…censorship smothered art and literature… and intellectual life…withered. Paranoia and fanaticism naturally occupy minds…”

  19. Hot, Flat, and CrowdedThomas L Friedman • 7. Global Weirding – Climate Change • The Age of Noah – Biodiversity • “It gives me goose bumps” says Career, who founded a non-profit to promote sustainable ranching on the Amazon frontier. “It’s like witnessing a rape. You can’t protect it. There’s too much money to be made tearing it down. Out here on the frontier, you really see the market at work.” • 9. Energy Poverty • “At the village level, energy poverty means you can’t pump clean water regularly, there’s no communications, no way to have adult literacy classes, and certainly no way to run computers at school or have access to connectivity. This perpetuates social inequality.”

  20. Hot, Flat, and CrowdedThomas L Friedman • 10. Green is the New Red, White, and Blue • “We need a Clean Energy System that is always trying to optimize these five elements: The more clean electrons we generate, the more growth we can have with fewer emissions. The greater the energy efficiency we bring about, the fewer clean electrons we need to get more growth…” • 11. 205 Easy Ways to Save the Earth • “For all the talk of a green revolution”, said Lewis, “Things are not getting better. In fact, they are actually getting worse…In the year 2000 to 2006 we tripled the rate of global CO2 emission increases… [to] over 3% a year!”

  21. Hot, Flat, and CrowdedThomas L Friedman • 12. The Energy Internet: When IT meets ET • IT=Information Technology ET=Energy Technology • “Utilities made their money by building stuff – more power plants and more power lines that enabled them to sell more and more electrons to more and more customers – because they were rewarded by their regulators with increased rates on the basis of those capital expenditures. The more capital they deployed, the more they made. And since their new capital investments had to be justified by growth in demand, the utilities were motivated to encourage consumption…”

  22. Hot, Flat, and CrowdedThomas L Friedman • The Stone Age Didn’t End Because We Ran Out of Stones • “Every year I come to China and young Chinese tell me, “Mr. Friedman, you Americans got to grow dirty for 150 years – you got to have your Industrial Revolution based on coal and oil – now it is our turn.’ Well, on behalf of all Americans, I am here to today to tell you that you’re right. It’s your turn. Please, take your time, grow as dirty as you like for as long as you like. Take your time! Please! Because I think my country needs only 5 years to invent all the clean power and energy efficiency tools that you, China, will need to avoid choking on pollution, and then we are going to come over and sell them all to you. We will get at least a 5-year jump on you in the next great global industry: clean power and energy efficiency.”

  23. Hot, Flat, and CrowdedThomas L Friedman • 14. If It Isn’t Boring, It Isn’t Green • “Which city in Pennsylvania has a trade surplus with China, Mexico, and Brazil? • Answer: Erie • So how did GE Transportation, located in the former heartland of American manufacturing, now the heartland of America’s rust belt, become the most profitable maker off locomotives in the world? • Answer: A combination of great engineering…, a global market looking for cleaner locomotives, and a U.S. government that demanded higher and higher standards. Those high standards helped to drive the innovation of a big train engine that spewed out less pollution, while also increasing fuel economy and thereby lowering CO2 emissions in the bargain.”

  24. Hot, Flat, and CrowdedThomas L Friedman • 15 A Million Noahs, A Million Arks • “A recent scientific study … found that more children knew the characters of Pokemon than could recognize an oak tree or an otter. Science education –especially ecology and Earth-based sciences – in America is falling behind that of other countries.” • 16. Outgreening al-Qaeda (or, Buy One, Get Four Free) • “Nothing – and I mean nothing – will make you a believer in distributed solar power faster than having responsibility for trucking fuel across Iraq. I met two soldiers… Their unit was responsible for supplying DF2 diesel fuel to smaller outposts all over the northern Iraqi battle space to keep their generators running. The day I visited… the temperature hit 121 degrees Fahrenheit... Air-conditioning a tent in the desert… 70% of the …energy budget was being spent just moving fuel from one base to another.”

  25. Hot, Flat, and CrowdedThomas L Friedman • 17. Can Red China Become Green China? • “An American friend in Beijing tells me that every morning he gets up and does his own air quality test - as many Beijing residents do: He looks out his 24-story window and checks how far he can see. On a rare pristine day, … he can see Fragrant Mountain rising to the northwest. On a ‘good’ pollution day, he can see the China World building 4 blocks away. On a bad day, he can’t see the building next door.”

  26. Hot, Flat, and CrowdedThomas L Friedman • China for a Day, But Not for Two • “What doesn’t exist today in the energy business is the hand of God” said [GE CEO] Immelt. “I think if you asked the utilities and big manufacturers in this business what they would most like, it would be for the president to stand up and say: “by 2025 we are going to produce this much coal, this much natural gas, this much wind, this much solar, this much nuclear, and nothing is going to stand in the way.” Well you’d have about 30 days of complaining and crying, and then people across the whole energy industry would just stand up and say, “Thank you Mr. President, now let’s go do it.” and we would go out and do it.”

  27. Hot, Flat, and CrowdedThomas L Friedman • 19. A Democratic China or a BANANA Republic? • “Build absolutely nothing anywhere near anything: “We are all pilgrims again… We have not been to this shore before. If we fail to recognize that, we will, indeed become just one more endangered species. But if we rise to this challenge, and truly become the Re-Generation – redefining green and rediscovering, reviving, and regenerating America – we, and the world, will not only survive, but thrive in an age that is hot, flat, and crowded.”

  28. Energy EfficiencyConcepts ComputeR Engineering & Use

  29. Statistics: Current Allocation of Electricity • Statistics • 5-10% of total energy use of average US building • Data Centers are 40x energy intensive compared to Office • Air conditioning = 25% of costs • Current Use [Bolla2011] • Home 10 W x 17.5 B users = 1533 GWh/year • Access 1280 W x 27,344 devices = 307 GWh/year • Core 10,000 W x 175 devices = 15 GWh/year • Predicted Use (2006->2026) [Sato2010] • Growth Network Traffic: 190x (45% cumulative annual growth) • Growth Power: 5.2x

  30. SMART 20202 Study • ICT energy growth rate of 6% per year • By 2020, ICT energy will consume 12% of worldwide energy. • Server farms, telecommunications infrastructure = 3% world’s energy • growing by 16-20% per year • Cellular networks consume 0.5% of the world’s energy • 99% of that is consumed in the network (not end user) • In the U.S., the Internet consumes 9.4% of all electricity and is increasing • Personal computers consume about half of the electricity consumed by computer systems

  31. Topics in Green Computing • [Green500-2010] • Green IT Lifecycle – Procurement, Disposal • E-Waste: coltan, irridium • End-User IT Efficiency • Enterprise and Data Center Efficiency – Networks, Servers, Virtualization, AC • Use of IT as Low-Carbon Enabler – E.g., Smart Home, Smart Grid • Effectiveness of Green IT Measurement & Monitoring

  32. The Story of E-Waste 60 Minutes: E-Waste - 2008 Dateline – Uploaded 9/25/11 Triwood - How do they do it? Recycling Computers (5:42) E-waste centre of Agbogbloshie, Ghana

  33. Power Analysis • Power = Capacitive Load x Voltage2 x Frequency switched • Frequency Switched: related to Clock Rate • Capacitive load: Related to number of transistors connected to output, and Technology • Voltage: Dropped from 5 V to 1 V -> future to 200mV • Over computer history: Clock rates increased, Voltage dropped • Simpler computers provide more processing power per Watt. • Recent drop in # pipeline stages, and issue width

  34. Comparison of Energy Usage Excerpted from: Computer Organization and Design, 4th Ed. Patterson & Hennessy, Morgan Kaufmann, 2009, page 403.

  35. Google’s Data Center • • Measure PUE • Manage Air Flow • Adjust the Thermostat • Use Free Cooling • Optimize Power Distribution

  36. Vocabulary – Acronyms, Measures • ICT = Information & Communication Technology • DVFS = Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling • Leakage = Power loss at increased heat • PUE = Power Usage Effectiveness = Total_Power/Computer_Power • ECR = Energy Consumption Rating • ECRvL= Energy Consumption in Relation to Variable Load • Sustainability: Minimizes environmental impact, including greenhouse gas emissions, use of raw materials, and hazardous waste.

  37. Efficient Engineering: Reducing Power • Dynamic Power Scaling • Adaptive Rate: Reduce the work performed • Energy-proportional computing • DVFS = Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling • Parameters: (# of Nodes, # of cores, frequency) • Low Power Idle: Stall processing periodically • Redundancy can sleep • States: Full power, idle, sleep

  38. Efficiency Techniques More Obvious Less Obvious air economizer: uses colder outside air for air conditioning chillers: tubes carry colder water run the room temperature higher but within computer specs leakage may be a problem improve airflow use computers longer recycle and resell computers smart grid will influence the time of optional electrical use • turn off equipment during slow periods • use power saving modes • use virtual machines • eliminate phantom loads • extending computer life by upgrading with efficient components, • purchase Energy Star • use alternative power

  39. Exercise: Kill-A-Watt Measuring Electrical Usage & Analysis

  40. Electricity Voltage = Depth Current = Speed Resistance = Work or Obstructions voltage current resistance

  41. Resistance: measured in Ohms Ω

  42. Electricity: Notation • Voltage => Volts = V • Current => Amperes = Amps = A • Resistance => Ohms = Ω

  43. Ohm’s Law: V=IR • Example: • Given: • Voltage = 10 V • Resistance = 1k Ω • What is Current? • Current = I = V/R • = 10/1000 • = 1/100 = 0.01 A • =10 mAmps • Voltage = Current * Resistance (V=IR) • Resistance = Voltage/Current (R=V/I)

  44. Buttons on Kill-A-Watt • Volts • Current • Watts – VI • Watts = Voltage * Current • Frequency – Power Factor • Frequency in KHZ • Power Factor • Kilowatt Hour (KWH) = VI * T / 1000 • 1 year = Watt * 24 (hrs/day) * 365 (days/year)/1K

  45. CO2 Impact

  46. Excel Spreadsheet Analysis