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Energy Efficiency

Energy Efficiency

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Energy Efficiency

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  1. Energy Efficiency APES 2008

  2. Energy Efficiency • Measure of useful energy produced compared to energy consumed. • Also known as the total net energy yield • Ex: nuclear power plants produce a lot of energy from small amount of fuel but the energy put into mining, smelting, etc is greater so it is hard to “break-even” • Light given off from light bulb is useful but heat given off is wasted • Incandescent bulb (regular bulb) is 5% efficient • Fluorescent bulb is 22% efficient

  3. Energy Efficiency in the Home

  4. Compact Fluorescent Light (CFL) Bulbs & Your Home • 1CFL is equal to 13 regular bulbs • CFL’s are a little more expensive but you save money on bulbs & electric bill later • 1 Sylvania CFL- $6.98 • 24 Sylvania regulars- $9.98 • CFL’s use lower wattage to get same amount of light • 13 watt CFL can give off as much light as 60 watt regular bulb using ¼ of electricity • By replacing 25% of your regular with CFL, you can save 50% on energy bill. • Incandescents & Halogens give off more heat than CFL’s • In summer this can cause you to use your air conditioning more. • Same quality of light

  5. CFLs and the environment • 20 watt CFL used instead of 75 watt incandescent bulb saves 550 kWh of electricity • This saves 500 pounds of coal which keeps 1300 pounds of carbon dioxide emissions and 20 pounds of sulfur emissions out of the air.

  6. Energy Star Products • Joint program of the U.S. EPA and the U.S. DOE • Designed to protect the environment thru energy-efficient products & practices. • In 2005, programs coordinated thru Energy star saved $12 billion in utility bills and avoided greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to 23 million cars.

  7. Energy Efficiency & Cars

  8. State Energy Program Energy conservation Act (1975) • Set up Strategic Petroleum Reserve so we can stockpile crude oil • Established programs to foster energy conservation in federal buildings and major U.S. industries • Provide states with funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects • Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards set. See next slide about CAFE Energy Policy Act (1992) • States play crucial role in regulating local energy industries • Expanded states role in policy development & technology deployment • Allowed “revolving” funds for renewable & energy efficient projects Energy Funding Allocation- how is the money distributed by Department of Energy (DOE)? • 1/3 distributed equally • 1/3 based on population • 1/3 based on energy consumption • 20% must be provided by state

  9. CAFE standards • Corporate Average Fuel Economy • Average fuel economy for a manufacturer’s fleet of cars that have a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 8,500 lbs or less. Expressed in miles per gallon (mpg). Tested by company or EPA. • Passenger cars standard- 27.5 mpg • Light truck standard- 22.2 mpg • SUV’s, Pickup trucks, and large vans are exempt • Achieved thru better engine design, efficiency & weight reductions • If car/truck does not meet standards, may be penalized. • Charged $5.50 per 1/10th of a mpg that does not meet target rate • Can earn credits during “passing” years that can be used during “non passing” years to help them “pass” and not have to pay so much in penalty • • From 1975-1985 fuel efficiency increased. Since 1985, fuel efficiency has leveled off.

  10. Gas Cars vs. Electric Cars vs. Hybrid cars • 1 gallon of gas weighs 6 lbs and when burned releases 20 lbs of CO2! • Electric cars produce no emissions (from the car) but must be recharged between uses (every 50-100 miles). This slow recharging process draws a lot of electricity so you still have energy generated from coal power plants which still causes pollution. • Hybrid cars- increase mileage of gas (reduce emissions) and do not have to be recharged. Gas Electric Hybrid

  11. Hybrid Cars • Gasoline-electric engine • High efficiency, lowest emissions • An electric motor run by batteries supplements gas engine so uses less gasoline. • Can get 40-50 miles per gallon in many hybrid cars • Cons- higher initial cost • Pros- • lower operating costs later on • Economic incentive: Can earn tax credits of up to $3,000

  12. Types of Hybrids • Parallel- fuel tank that supplies gasoline to engine & set of batteries that supplies power to electric motor; both gas & electric supply power to wheels; shuts down gas at a light & accelerates using electric (Toyota, Lexus, Ford) • Series- gas engine turns generator, which charges the batteries &/or powers an electric motor; gas engine is not used to make car go (General Motors) • Plug-in- added battery; plugged into 120 volt outlet to charge (60 miles per charge); when run out of charge, switches to fuel tank

  13. Hydrogen Fuel Cells • Works like a battery • Cathode & anode separated by membrane • Oxygen passes over one, hydrogen over the other • Hydrogen reacts with anode & is converted to negatively charged electrons & positively charged hydrogen ions. • Electrons flow out of cell to be used as electrical energy. • Hydrogen ions move thru the electrolyte membrane to the cathode where they combine with oxygen to make water • Only have to refill the hydrogen to keep reaction going.

  14. How a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Works

  15. Pros Waste is pure water Ocean or freshwater can be used to obtain hydrogen Does not destroy wildlife habitats Causes minimal environmental impact Energy used to create hydrogen could come from solar power Hydrogen easily transported thru pipes Can be stored in compounds to make it safe to handle Cons Takes energy to produce hydrogen from either water or methane Changing from fossil fuels to hydrogen fuel would be very expensive & cost people their jobs Hydrogen gas is explosive Currently difficult to store hydrogen gas for cars Hydrogen Fuel Cells

  16. What can be done to help?

  17. Negawatts program • Programs sponsored by energy companies • Easier to finance education & conservation projects than build new coal power plants • “demand avoidance” • Conservation projects (public education, home improvement loans, efficiency labels, reduced taxes on energy saving appliances) cost about $350 per kWh saved • New nuclear power plants cost $3000-$8000 per kW of installed capacity • New coal power plants with latest air pollution control equipment is $1000 kW

  18. What can you do? • Drive less; make fewer trips • Use public transportation, walk or ride bike • Carpool; drive smaller car; reduce speeds • Use stairs instead of elevator • Insulate home or add more insulation. Higher the “R” value on insulation, the better it is • Turn thermostats down in winter & up in spring • Weather strip or caulk around windows & doors • Add plastic sheets to windows • Open blinds during day and close at night trapping heat stored during day • Turn off lights, TVs, computers when not in use; use compact fluorescent lights • Stop faucet leaks- especially hot water • Use low flow shower heads, take shorter, cooler showers • Recycle glass, metals, paper; compost organic matter • Eat locally grown food in season- reduces transportation cost & use of gas • Buy locally made, long-lasting materials

  19. Interesting Links • •