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Monitoring of environmental factors

Monitoring of environmental factors

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Monitoring of environmental factors

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  1. Monitoring of environmental factors Berthold Heinze, BFW (Vienna, AT) – Partner 2

  2. The rationale • discuss common protocols and standards for monitoring environmental / meteorological factors in field tests • to better compare test results • to make common assessment of these factors possible

  3. The method • a survey / questionnaire ... • (what else did you think?)

  4. The means • internet page with simple click click click questions • word file

  5. The response • We are in the year 2009 A.D. The whole TREEBREEDEX partnership answered the questionnaire ... • The whole partnership? No! An Institute of stubborn scientists continues to resist to all my e-mails ...

  6. T.B.X.

  7. The response (seriously ...) • 27 partner institutes answered • 2 of them sent their answers combined • so the total is 26 answers • 17 partners used the online file • 9 sent Word file • which I then entered online myself

  8. sources of meteorological / climate data none (please give reason) 1 (3,85%) historical data (e.g. from a climate atlas) 16 (61,54%) concurrent data from the next meteorological station ava 22 (84,62%) a full meteorological station that you set up in the fie 4 (15,38%) a few instruments for measuring the most relevant data ( 8 (30,77%) an existing meteorological station combined with some ex 2 (7,69%) ____________ ______________ Nominations (Multiple choice possible!) 53 total answers 26 no answer 0 my conclusions: • climate atlases and next met. station are favourites • surprisingly many use their own instruments

  9. distance of stations some remarks: • „every distance is not near“ • „we used to have own stations, but not any more“ my conclusions: • 0-5-25 km is the choice for most • but it may depend on the landscape we don't use them (please specify details) 3 (11,54%) 0-5 km 8 (30,77%) 5-25 km 14 (53,85%) 25-50 km 10 (38,46%) further away 3 (11,54%) ____________ ______________ Nominations (Multiple choice possible!) 38 total answers 26 no answer 0

  10. kind of data collected none 2 (8,00%) temperature data 22 (88,00%) precipitation data 21 (84,00%) wind data 4 (16,00%) air pressure 0 (0,00%) derived variables or indices (please specify which ones) 7 (28,00%) anything else - please specify 9 (36,00%) ____________ ______________ Nominations (Multiple choice possible!) 65 total answers 25 no answer 1

  11. some derived variables temperature sum, (potential) ETP (evapo-transpiration), frequency of frost in different month, degrees days above 5 degrees C, relative air humidity, sunshine (daily or monthly number of hours of direct sun radiation, temperatures: *mean annual temperature, *mean temperature April-September, *mean of the warmest and coldest month, absolute minimum temperatures in different months precipitation: *mean annual, *mean April-September, *precipitation of the warmest month other: *Average yearly number of days with mean t, Continentality index

  12. questions for discussion • is there a geographical bias in what data are preferred/relevant? • e.g. annual distribution of precipitation and temperatures; wind, ...

  13. temperature intervals – existing stations none 1 (4,17%) mean annual temperature 18 (75,00%) mean temperature in the vegetation period/growing season 17 (70,83%) mean monthly temperature 14 (58,33%) mean daily temperature 6 (25,00%) mean hourly temperature 1 (4,17%) minimum/maximum temperature in the vegetation period/gro 14 (58,33%) minimum/maximum monthly temperature 13 (54,17%) minimum/maximum daily temperature 10 (41,67%) minimum/maximum hourly temperature 1 (4,17%) continuous temperature data 6 (25,00%) online continuous temperature data 1 (4,17%) other - please specify 5 (20,83%) ____________ ______________ Nominations (Multiple choice possible!) 107 total answers 24 no answer 2 my conclusions: • mean and min/max are most relevant • down to the monthly level • but see remarks ...

  14. temperature intervals - own stations • few institutes use them • 3-6 mainly • do you really put them up in every/many field tests? • or does that concern tests at a fixed location (e.g. nursery)? • same goes for data loggers – even fewer people use them • in what specific circumstances? (ask audience)

  15. some remarks on temperature intervals • frost period, degree days • in some research experiments: daily data are also needed during a year, e.g. mean daily temperature - in case of phenology research • mean decade temperature • wind speed and prevailing direction

  16. growing season we do not consider this 1 (3,85%) days with mean temperature above 5°C 14 (53,85%) days with mean temperature above 10°C 6 (23,08%) other (please specify) 7 (26,92%) ____________ ______________ Nominations (Multiple choice possible!) 28 total answers 26 no answer 0 my conclusions: • geographical trend? – higher in the south? • some use 7 or 7.5 degrees • some use period (e.g., frost-free May-October)

  17. red – 10° orange – 7° green – 5° apparently no geographical preferences X

  18. frost assessment derived from concurrent temperature data (please specify 7 (26,92%) assessed from visual inspection of damages 25 (96,15%) ____________ ______________ Nominations (Multiple choice possible!) 32 total answers 26 no answer 0 • few have specified the temperature data • days/hours with temp below ...° / per month • different protocols for assessment • depend very much on species • if damages occur • distinction light/severe is not always made • connected to observed damages • connected to temp data from station/own recorders

  19. precipitation intervals none 2 (7,69%) mean annual precipitation 22 (84,62%) total precipitation in the vegetation period/growing sea 21 (80,77%) total monthly precipitation 17 (65,38%) total daily precipitation 5 (19,23%) hourly precipitation data 0 (0,00%) minimum/maximum precipitation in the vegetation period/g 12 (46,15%) minimum/maximum monthly precipitation 11 (42,31%) minimum/maximum daily precipitation 2 (7,69%) minimum/maximum hourly precipitation 0 (0,00%) online precipitation data 0 (0,00%) other - please specify 2 (7,69%) ____________ ______________ Nominations (Multiple choice possible!) 94 total answers 26 no answer 0 my conclusions: • similar as with temperature • mainly monthly averages, or extremes are recorded

  20. drought we do not consider this 9 (34,62%) precipitation below a certain threshold (please specify 10 (38,46%) temperature above a certain threshold (please specify th 6 (23,08%) a composite index of precipitation and temperature (plea 12 (46,15%) ____________ ______________ Nominations (Multiple choice possible!) 37 total answers 26 no answer 0 my conclusions: • this is a tough one • answers are rather variable • geographic trend? • water availability depends on soil type

  21. suggestions for discussion • define bioclimatic regions in Europe and then, • depending on them, define drought? • define drought relative to long-standing regional averages? • or do extreme events necessitate individual handling?

  22. other data collected • very few answers (relative humidity - dew - wind speed - wind direction - solar radiation) • wind exposure • e.g., „During the 70s and 80s a flag on standard material was put on all new planting sites and the rate of 'tatter' or fabric loss was measured. We have covered the whole contry now and have good data on the 'windiness' of each kilometer sqaure of Britain.”

  23. storm damage • similar story as with wind, drought: We do not determine / define storm events, this is irrel 13 (52,00%) We use the following criteria (use free text box) 12 (48,00%) ____________ ______________ Nominations (Multiple choice possible!) 25 total answers 25 no answer 1 • usually, visual inventory in the field of damaged trees • assessed only if there is any differences between the tested plants

  24. worldclim / bioclim not many use the basic worldclim data: average monthly mean temperature 8 (100,00%) average monthly minimum temperature 7 (87,50%) average monthly maximum temperature 6 (75,00%) average monthly precipitation 7 (87,50%) ____________ ______________ Nominations (Multiple choice possible!) 28 total answers 8 no answer 18 but even this may be a misunderstanding: do you use the database, or do you calculate the data yourself?? (ask audience here)

  25. similar picture for bioclim: • some use it, but do you use the database, • or calculate yourself? (ask audience here)

  26. use of the data for assessing field test results • mixed picture – answers varied: • no use, in general • use only for extreme events • routine use for comparing sites • use it for regression of growth/adaptation traits (predictor variables, reaction norms, GxE) • use it to prepare for climate change • use it to make conclusions on observed phenology • use e.g. dew for leaf fungi occurrence (poplar)

  27. discussion needs • can we define a minimum common set of recommendations? • and possibly a desired set of optimal conductance?

  28. let‘s get into it: • meteo stations – distance from field test: • is 5-25 km near enough? • does it depend on the landscape? • temperature and precipitation are most important for most of us • should we care about wind, ...? • or is that something specific only to few among us?

  29. derived variables • define a simple (set) that fits most needs? • temp sum? • annual distribution of temp, precip? • continentality index? • mountain / exposure index?

  30. intervals of measurements • most are happy with monthly values • daily values only important for extreme events, or for e.g. flushing observations?

  31. definition of the growing season • split between days above 5 – 7.5 – 10 ° • but no geographic trend • should be easy to calculate either of them

  32. frost • visual assessment rules o.k. • most would try to find out about the severity of temp drop afterwards • categorize? • e.g. hours and days below 0 / -3 / -5° ...

  33. drought • define bioclimatic regions in Europe and then, • depending on them, define drought? • define drought relative to long-standing regional averages? • or do extreme events necessitate individual handling?

  34. others • do we need ot care about humidity, wind, storms, dew, radiation, ... ?

  35. worldclim / bioclim • discuss whether the data base is useful to TBX partners, • or if they prefer their own measurements • has anybody compared both??

  36. ... and finally,what to do with all the data?? • compare sites ? • use regressions, reaction norms, interpretation of GxE, ...? • use it in climate change research / recommendations ?? • only for special interest • phenology, leaf fungi / dew, ...