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Challenges in Our World Today

Challenges in Our World Today

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Challenges in Our World Today

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  1. Challenges in Our World Today Major World Conflicts 2011   Major wars, 1,000+ deaths per year   Minor wars and conflicts, 10-1,000 deaths per year The power point presentation covers the material from Chapter 20 of the Mastering the TEKS in World History book by Jarrett, Zimmer, and Killoran. (pages 343 to 354)

  2. Essential Questions • Can the Arab-Israel conflict be peacefully resolved? • What can be done to prevent global terrorism? • How can human rights be protected? • How is globalization changing our world today?

  3. Arab-Israel Conflict Oslo Accords Palestinian Authority Terrorists Radical Islamic Fundamentalists Al-Qaeda Taliban Osama Bin Laden Saddam Hussein Genocide Mother Teresa Golda Meir Margaret Thatcher Globalization Important Ideas

  4. The Arab-Israel Conflict

  5. 1917 Balfour Declaration: Britain announced that it planned on creating a Jewish homeland in the Middle East. Many Jews immigrated to the area (Zionism). Arabs saw this as another form of European Imperialism. In the 1930s and 40s many Jews came to the Middle East because of Nazi persecution. 1948: Britain gave up control of Palestine and handed the Jewish problem over to the United Nations. The UN divided the area. The Jews got the State of Israel and the Palestinian Arabs got the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The Arab-Israeli Conflict

  6. 5 neighboring countries attacked Israel as soon as the country was formed. Jordan seized the West Bank. Egypt took over the Gaza Strip. Israel controlled parts of these areas, also. Israel’s War for Independence (1948)

  7. The leader of Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal and closed it to Israel. Britain, France, and Israel invaded Egypt. The US and USSR demanded they halt the invasion. The Suez Crisis of 1956

  8. Israel expected to be attacked so launched a surprise attack on Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. Israel won and acquired the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula from Egypt. They also acquired the West Bank from Jordan and the Golan Heights from Syria. Six Day War (1967)

  9. Egypt and Syria launch a surprise attack against Israel on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur. Israel forced the Arabs back and retained possession of the Sinai Peninsula. Yom Kippur War (1973)

  10. OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Arab countries who export oil. 1973 OPEC refused to sell oil to any country who aided Israel. This resulted in higher gas prices and increased the wealth of these countries. Camp David Accords (1978) Meeting between Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat and Israel Prime Minister Menachim Begin. President Carter hosted this meeting in the US. Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt in exchange for peace. Other Arab countries denounced the agreement. 1981 Arab extremists assassinated President Sadat. The Arab-Israeli Conflict

  11. P.L.O.: Palestinian Liberation Organization Refused to recognize Israel and vowed to win back their homeland. Terrorism: the PLO use terrorism as a weapon in the 1960s and 1970s against Israel. They hijacked planes, attacked an Israeli school, and murdered 11 Jewish athletes at the 1972 Olympics. War in Lebanon: 1975 Civil War in Lebanon between Christians, Sunnis, and Shi’ites. 1976 and 1982 Syria invaded Lebanon. Israel also attacked Lebanon in order to destroy the PLO. Intifada (uprising): 1987 young Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip protested the treatment of Arabs by the Israelis. These became violent. Israel tried to stop the protests without much success. Jews also began building homes in these areas. Many Arabs resented this. Israel and the Palestinians 1972 - PLO terrorists kill 11 Israeli team members in Olympic Village, Munich, Germany

  12. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cZIzRB1T8ug

  13. After winning the 1st Gulf War the US pressured the Arabs and Israelis to peace talks. Israeli leader Yitzhak Rabin and PLO leader Yassir Arafat reached an agreement called the Oslo Accords (1993). Israel agreed to give the Palestinians control of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The PLO agreed to recognize Israel. Israel also signed a treaty with Jordan. Middle East Peace Conference (1991)

  14. Lack of progress in the Oslo Accords led to another uprising in 2001. Israel attacked the PLO compound because of suicide bombings. In 2002, Israel built the West Bank barrier, a wall separating the West bank from Israel. In 2003 Israel announced they would dismantle all Israeli settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. By 2005 Israel had left its settlements in Gaza. The Second Intifada West Bank Barrier: On the road to Bethlehem, a very symbolic tag on the wall made on the Palestinian side ("I am a Berliner") Compare this wall to the Berlin Wall.

  15. Yassir Arafat died in 2004. PLO split between his party the Fatah and the more radical party the Hamas. Hamas continued its terrorist attacks against Israel. Hamas took power in Gaza in 2006 through elections. Fatah remains in power in the West Bank. Divisions Among the Palestinians

  16. 2007 Israel and Palestine opened new negotiations. Topics they discussed: Future control of Jerusalem Jewish settlements in the West Bank Rights of Palestinian refugees who left Israel. The Israeli’s accepted the plan they developed but the Arabs refused it. New Attempts at Negotiations President George W. Bush, center, discusses the Middle East peace process with Prime Minister Ariel Sharon of Israel, left, and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas in Aqaba, Jordan, 4 June 2003.

  17. In 2006 Hezbollah attacked Israel with rockets from Lebanon. They also kidnapped two Israeli soldiers. At the same time Hamas attacked Israel the same way from the Gaza Strip. Israel invaded southern Lebanon. The UN stepped in and stopped them and promised to have Hezbollah disarm. This has not yet happened. In 2008, Israel attacked the Gaza Strip in response to the rocket attacks. Israel Strikes Against Hezbollah and Hamas The estimated warning time for a rocket attack on the greater Tel Aviv area. How does the fact that people could be attacked at any time effect their political views?

  18. Suggested Lesson • Arab-Israeli Conflict Activity

  19. Radical Islamic Fundamentalism Map of terrorist hot spots 2011. The darker the color the greater the threat of a terrorist attack.

  20. Shah Reza Pahlavi: ruled Iran in the 1960s and 70s. Adopted Western culture and technology His government was corrupt and repressive He was overthrown by religious leaders in 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini: Iran’s new leader Was a Islamic fundamentalist who wanted to return to the old way and strict enforcement of Islamic law. Saw the West as a threat to this way of thinking. Supported terrorism. Allowed extremists to kidnap US citizens from the US Embassy in Tehran. The Iranian Revolution (1979) Shah Pahlavi Ayatollah Khomeini

  21. Saddam Hussein Dictator of Iraq 1980 attacked Iran in a bloody 8 year war 1990 invaded oil rich Kuwait The UN led by the US sent troops to Saudi Arabia to ensure that country was not invaded. The UN forces attacked the Iraqi forces and completely destroyed their army. Hussein was allowed to remain in power. Hussein attacked the Kurds in Northern Iraq in an attempt at genocide. The First Gulf War

  22. Al-Qaeda: Terrorist organization Osama bin Laded was its wealthy leader who had fought against the USSR in Afghanistan. He was angered by US troops in Saudi Arabia and called for a jihad against the US. 9-11-01 Al-Qaeda hijacked four US commercial airliners Crashed two into the World Trade Center and one into the Pentagon. President Bush declared a war on terrorism Al-Qaeda and the September 11, 2001 Attacks

  23. Taliban Strict Islamic Fundamentalist government Supported terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda US invaded Afghanistan to capture Osama bin Laden US overthrew the Taliban regime and established a democratic government. Violence continues in Afghanistan and neighboring Pakistan Osama bin Laden was killed by US Navy Seals in May of 2011 The War in Afghanistan

  24. Saddam Hussein failed to honor his agreement to let UN inspectors monitor Iraq. World leaders were worried he was stockpiling weapons of mass destruction. The US and its allied invaded Iraq in 2003 and quickly defeated the Iraqi forces. The US set up a democratic government and kept security forces in Iraq until the end of 2011. Terrorist attacks continue to be a problem in Iraq today. The Second Gulf War

  25. Suggested Lesson • U.S. and the Middle East Activity

  26. Human Rights

  27. Yugoslavia was created after World War I by combining Serbia with parts of Austria-Hungary. This area contained Orthodox Christian Serbs, Catholic Croats, and Bosnian Muslims. When Communism collapsed in 1991 fighting broke out between the groups. Croatia and Slovenia declared independence. Yugoslavia responded by attacking Croatia. Fighting also erupted in Bosnia between the Muslims and Orthodox Christian Serbs. Yugoslavia entered that conflict on the side of the Christians. Bosnian Serbs began an “ethnic cleansing” of all Muslims (extermination). The US and NATO stepped in and ended the war. Bosnia was divided into a two republics, one Muslim and one Serb. Genocide in the Balkans

  28. Rwanda and Burundi: Small densely populated central African countries. Both have a Hutu majority and a Tutsi minority population 1972 fighting erupted between the two tribes. 1994 the Rwandan president (Hutu) is killed in a plan explosion. Fighting erupted again. Hutu troops began killing Tutsi citizens. The UN estimates that about 850,000 people were killed, about half the Tutsi population. Genocide in Africa

  29. Darfur: Conflict in Sudan that began over grazing grounds and farmland in the early 1990s and still continues. Janjaweed: government backed militia made up of mostly of Arab tribesmen. Janaweed: has killed more than 200,000 black Africans and displaced 2 million more. The US declared these acts of genocide in 2007. Genocide in Africa

  30. Governments often committed politically motivated crimes. Cuba: Castro has imprisoned and killed political opponents. Chile: the military government has tortured and killed suspected political opponents. El Salvador: “death squads” have gunned down political opponents like Archbishop Oscar Romero for speaking out against the government. Argentina: 20,000 people disappeared during the military rule that ended in 1984. The Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo are a group of mothers and relatives who demand to know what happened to these disappeared people. Human Rights Violations Argentinean citizens lead protest to find out information about the deseparacidos (disappeared)

  31. In the 19th and 20th centuries women began to have equal rights with men. In many parts of the world women are still treated as inferior, especially in Africa and Asia. Many international groups lobby in these areas to achieve equality for women. Women’s Rights Lebanese women protest in Beirut

  32. Born in Macedonia Catholic nun Devoted her life to helping the impoverished and homeless in India. Began a new catholic order, the Missionaries of Charity Won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979. Mother Teresa (1910-1997)

  33. Born in Russia Raised in Wisconsin In 1921 she moved to Israel Became 1st women Prime Minister of Israel (1969-1974) She led Israel during the 1972 Olympic murders and the Yom Kippur War. Golda Meir (1898-1978)

  34. 1st women Prime Minister of Britain (1979-1990) Knick named the “Iron Lady” She sold off state owned industries, promoted free trade, and strongly opposed Soviet Communism. She was leader of Britain during the Falkland Islands war with Argentina. Margaret Thatcher (born 1925)

  35. Globalization: greater contact between the entire world. Global Economy: each countries economy is now dependent on other countries economies. Challenges of Globalization

  36. Suggested Lesson • Human Rights Activity