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The Reading Process: It REALLY Is Rocket Science!. Presented by: Carla Wilson. Goals:. Examine the causes of reading failure Understand evidence based research on the reading process Recognize the connection between oral language and reading
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The Reading Process: It REALLY Is Rocket Science! Presented by: Carla Wilson
Goals: • Examine the causes of reading failure • Understand evidence based research on the reading process • Recognize the connection between oral language and reading • Understand the reading process in relationship to different parts of the brain which are engaged
Reflection: • With a person/people sitting next to you, think of students you have known that have experienced reading failure. • Discuss the possible causes of the reading failure.
Causes of Reading Failure: • Language processing weakness • Phonological processing weakness • Visual processing • Use of background to construct meaning • Connecting reading and writing • Reading fluency • Attention • Memory • Processing actions/Cognitive Actions • Emotion and Motivation • Poor instructional practices
Reading Statistics • Scientists estimate that 95% of all children can be taught to read. • Yet in spite of all of our knowledge, statistics reveal an alarming prevalence of poor and struggling readers that is not limited to any one segment of society. • About 20% of elementary students nationwide have significant problems learning to read. (National Assessment of Educational Progress) • At least 20% of elementary students do not read fluently enough to enjoy or engage in independent reading. • The rate of reading failure for African American, Hispanic, limited English speakers, and poor children ranges from 60-70%. • One third of poor readers nationwide are from college-educated families. • 25% of adults in this country lack the basic literacy skills required in a typical job.
What else does research tell us? • There is considerable evidence that the primary difference between good and poor readers lies in their phonemic awareness skills. • The 2 best school-entry predictors of how well children will learn to read during the first 2 years of instruction are a student’s abilities in phonemic awareness and letter knowledge. • National Reading Panel, 2000
Brain research: • Unlike speaking, reading is not an instinctive human ability. • For thousands of years, the ears were the primary route by which language entered the human brain. • Reading shifted the input to the eyes, requiring the brain to link written markings to spoken language.
Research Point: Large numbers of children at school entry lack the critical oral language skills necessary for them to benefit from early literacy instruction. Lucy Hart Paulson (2001)
What is oral language? • Oral Language is the listening and speaking part of communication. • It is a process that develops naturally.
What is receptive and expressive language? • Receptive language is the language we listen to and understand. • Expressive language is the language we use when we speak.
To clarify further... • Receptive Vocabulary: The words we understand. • Expressive Vocabulary: The words we use when we speak. • Listening: Attending to spoken language. • Speaking: The ability to express thoughts orally.
Research point: Between grades 1 and 3, it is estimated that economically disadvantaged students' vocabularies increase by about 3,000 words per year and middle-class students' vocabularies increase by about 5,000 words per year. • Baker, Simmons, & Kame'enui, 1997
Oral language • Oral language lays the foundation for reading comprehension. • You must be able to understand language at the oral level to be able to understand it at the text level. • If a student can only understand a 6 word sentence orally, he or she will struggle to understand a 12 word sentence in his or her book. • Teachers CAN help children develop oral language skills while they are at school.
Research Points: • Written language is invented; it is code based. To become literate, students must become masters of the code. • Lyon, 1998 • Good readers process the letters of each word in detail, although they do so rapidly and unconsciously • Those who read and comprehend well accomplish letter-wise text scanning with relative ease and fluency • Knowledge of sound-symbol relationship is crucial in developing word recognition, the ability to sound-out and recognize words accounts for about 80% of the variance in first grade reading comprehension and continues to be a major factor in text comprehension as students progress throughout the grades. • The ability to sound out words is a major underpinning that allows rapid recognition of words “by sight”. • When word identification is fast and accurate, a reader has ample mental energy to think over the meaning of the text. • Share and Stanovich, 1995; Adams, Tretman, and Pressley, 1998
Reflection: • How much practice would you need to become automatic? • What kinds of practice would help you the most? • If reading large amounts of text using this code, would you be able to read and comprehend at the same time?
Literacy LadderThe Building Blocks for Reading Comprehension 10. Comprehension 9. Fluency 8. Semantics 7. Syntax 6. Grammar 5. Morphology/Vocabulary 4. Syllable Types 3. Phonics 2. Phonemic Awareness 1. Phonological Awareness
SORTING ACTIVITY • Sort the activities into the correct component of the 4 part processor
Research indicates: • Although some children will learn to read in spite of incidental teaching, others never learn unless they are taught in an organized, systematic, efficient way by a knowledgeable teacher using a well-designed instructional approach. • And, while many students from high-risk environments come to school less prepared for literacy than their more advantaged peers, their risk of reading difficulties could still be prevented by literacy instruction that includes a range of research-based components and practices.
What does research say about effective reading instruction? • Phoneme awareness instruction • Direct teaching of decoding, comprehension, and literature appreciation • Systematic and explicit instruction in the code system of written English • Daily exposure to a variety of texts, as well as incentives for children to read independently and with others • Vocabulary instruction that includes a variety of methods designed to explore the relationship among words and the relationship among word structure, origin, and meaning • Comprehension strategies including: prediction of outcomes, summarizing, clarification, questioning, visualizing • Frequently writing about reading to enable a deeper understanding of text
Instruction Makes the Difference! • Effective instruction is more influential than: • Poverty • IQ • Family Status • Language