Sculpture Alex Miller, Ashton Swicegood, Alex Childers, Everette Israel, Steven Rink, Anthony Felkins
Free-Standing & Relief Free Standing: Sculpture meant to be seen from all sides AKA In-The-Round High Relief: More then half of the modeled form projects from the background Low Relief: Projects from the background surface AKA Bas-Relief
Methods & Materials Modeling Manipulative Additive Examples: Clay, Wax, Plaster To prevent sagging, sculptors use rigid inner support called armature.
Methods & Materials Casting Substitution or Replacement Method Scott Chamberlin Preferred his works untitled “a title just tells you what to think about it” Cast polyvinyl can be made to resemble flesh. Unbelievable Realism.
Methods & Materials Carving Subtractive Process Most Challenging because it is a one way technique that provides little room for error.
Constructing & Assembling Assembling AKA Construction Some sculptors assemble found objects that radically change the way we see familiar things.
Kinetic Sculpture Alexander Calder was among the first Kinetic Sculpture Sculpture that Moves ex. Mobiles
Mixed Media Mix of Materials 2-D 3-D or a combination of both Usually expresses a Cultural or symbolic meaning.
Installations To tell a story Visually The artist transforms the space by bringing into it items of symbolic significance Weather Project by OlafurEliasson Installed a huge semicircular sun of bright lamps then covered the ceiling in mirrors, so the yellow orb seemed whole.
Free standing and relief structure What is a freestanding or in-the-round sculpture? • A piece of art that is usually attached to a flat surface • It can be seen from a 180 degree vantage • You can view it fully at a 360 degree range • Sculptures of heads (busts) would be an example of a freestanding sculpture • This is an example of a freestanding sculpture • JFK bust
History of free standing structure • One of the first forms of art • Used to sculpt out of: • Bones • Small rocks • Religious iconology: most sculptures were of gods • Renaissance: when sculptures became more well known • This is when Michelangelo's sculpture “David” became well known David
Free standing and relief structures Capitol Building-Abe Lincoln Korean War Memorial-Washington D.C. Statue of Liberty-NYC
Bas-relief or low-relief sculpture • What is a bas-relief or low-relief sculpture? • Stone sculpture • Breaking away at a flat surface to make an image stand out • Persians, Egyptians and Greeks use this form of sculpting • Bas is low in French • Coins would be an example of bas/low relief sculpture • American cemetery in France from wwII • Sculpture on the building is an example of bas/low-relief
EXAMPLES OF EGYPTIAN BAS/LOW-RELIEF ART Luxor Temple-Egypt Bas/low-relief art from Cairo National Museum King Tut Funeral Mask
High relief sculpture • What is high relief sculpture? • 50% of the depth is shown • Figures are often subsequently undercut • Sculptures extend out from the background to about half their depth • Also known as alto-relievo in Italian • Mount Rushmore is a fantastic example of high relief sculptures
Examples of high-relief sculpting Confederate memorial carving: Stone Mountain Park-GA Imperial sarcophagus-Michelangelo
Methods of sculpting There are 4 main methods you use when you are sculpting: • Assembling: Creating a piece of art with objects, paper, wood or textiles • Carving: This includes tools such as a chisel, adze (tool similar to an ax with an arched curve), drove, gouge (ax with a concave blade) and a graver (engraving tool) • Graver • Adze • Modeling: mainly used in forms of clay, wax or plaster. Uses hands to build up the form • Casting: Pouring molten metal, plaster or other material to let artwork harden
Methods of Structure Cont. Assembling Carving Modeling Casting
Methods and Materials Casting and Carving
Casting: the basics casting processes allow one to create a work using an easily handled material (such as clay) and then to reproduce the results in a more permanent material (such as bronze). also called substitution or replacement process
Casting developed mostly in ancient China, Greece, Rome, and parts of Africa. - castings can be either solid or hollow, depending on cost and weight of material.
Casting: 3 steps a mold is taken from the original work. -- process varies depending on material being used. -- must use a liquid that hardens to cast (diluted clay, molten metal, concrete, liquid plastic).
Casting: 3 steps 2. original sculpture is removed from mold, casting liquid is poured into resulting hollow cavity. 3. mold removed when casting liquid hardens. - Copper has a melting point of 1,980 degrees.
Alberto Giacometti. Man Pointing. 1947 - especially difficult to create because of size. - Rachel Whitread. Public Art Fund Watertower Project. 1997 9,000 pounds of clear urethane.
Carving: stone Subtractive Process --Most Challenging because it is a one way technique that provides little room for error. different types of stone can be used. --marble, granite, sandstone, limestone. - Massive Stone Head. 12 - 10th century. Olmec.
Carving: wood wood carving is much different than stone carving. carving from single block can be very risky --outside of piece dries faster than inside - Most artists who create wood sculptures prefer walnut and cypress because of their strength and ease of working.
Carving: joined-block construction --developed by Chinese --pieces of sculpture are carved separately and then fitted together. -allows multiple sculptors to work at the same time on one single project - partially hollow wood, makes sculptures much lighter.
Construction and Assembling • Method of art representation who's utilization began in the early 20th century. • Before this technique, modeling, carving, and casting were popular methods of representation. • Construction(physical): An artistic composition using various materials. • Assembling(cognative): Work requiring metamorphic visual thinking in applying constructive technique
Oxyacetylene welding: processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively. 1895
Julio Gonzalez • Pioneered the use of the welding torch for cutting and welding metal sculpture • Mechanic and failed painter • Pacifist • Political activist
The Brothel of Avignon Three Musicians
Roberto Visani. Tribal War, from You See the Hut Yet You Ask "Where Shall I Go for Shelter." 2000–2003.61" x 35" x 34".
Mixed Media • A variety of media in a single work • Called mixed media rather than a long list of materials • May be two-dimensional, three-dimensional, or a combination of the two
Borrowing Your Enemy’s Arrows • By Cai Guo Qiang • 1998 • Retells an ancient Chinese war story • Made of wood, straw, arrows, flags and a fan
Grim Boy • By Lara Schnitger • 2005 • Straddles the boundary between sculpture and fashion design • Has feminist messages; shows dress making without beautiful adornments • Made of wood, fabric and mixed media
Nam June Paik • Artist most identified with the fusion of art and technology • First to use video as an art medium • Most known for his 1960s creation of a cello using only TV monitors: “TV Cello” • In 1978 he recorded videos of green landscapes, and played them on monitors placed in a bed of live plants • Began a traveling installation exhibit from 1997-1998 called Electronic Super Highway
Installations • Transforming of a space by adding items of symbolic significance • Many artists now use this three-dimensional medium • Artist constructs an environment rather than a single piece
This Piece Doesn’t Have A Title Yet • By Cady Noland • A typical 1989 work • We see an American flag and notice that the beer cans are also patriotically colored • Comments on the tendency of beer commercials to advertise drinking beer as the “American” thing to do
This Piece Doesn’t Have A Title Yet contd. • Has the theme of consumption • Scaffolding is used to symbolize the bleachers commonly used in sports • Brings together beer, sports, and nationalism
Tate Modern • Took over an old power plant in London in 2000 • Uniquely large space for indoor art • 500 feet long • Used for large scale temporary installations
The Weather Project • By Danish artist Olafur Eliasson • Displayed from 2003-2004 • Displayed in the Tate Modern in London • Installed huge sun made of lamps, covered the ceiling in mirrors, and fans blow mist from metlting dry ice to create misty clouds • Drew over two million visitors
The Weather Project contd. • Viewers basked in its warmth during the cold winter • It was common to lay on the floor for hours • Used as a space of communal meditation