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  1. Sculpture •

  2. Ceramics • One of the largest groups of materials with the properties of nonmetals and all are made by firing or burning, often including silicates and metal oxides. • Greek term Keramos, meaning "a potter" or "pottery”.

  3. Ceramic materials are attractive for several reasons : • Cheap in terms of its starting materials. • Compared to metals, lightweight and retain their strength up to 1000˚C where metals tends to fail. • They have electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of value in the computer and electronic industries.

  4. History • The art of making pottery by forming and burning clay has been practiced from the earliest civilizations. • Burnt clayware has been found dating from about 15,000 B.C. and as well developed as an industrial product in Egypt by about 5000 B.C. • Formed glass dates from the period 7000-5000 B.C. and was a stable industry in Egypt by about 1500 B.C.

  5. Clay is one of the three main kinds of soil, the other two being sand and loam. • • Most soils of agricultural importance are some type of loam. • A certain amount of clay is good because it helps hold particles together and helps hold water. • If soil has a lot of clay it is difficult to cultivate. The stiffness resists agricultural tools, interferes with the growth of the plants, and prevents free circulation of air around the roots. Clay soils are cold and sticky in wet weather, while in dry weather they bake hard and crack. • Clays can be improved by the addition of lime, chalk, or organic matter. • In spite of their disadvantages, the richness of clay soils makes them favorable to the growth of crops that have been started in other soil.

  6. Ancient man discovered that clay could be shaped and modeled into forms both • decorative and functional. • Some of the earliest pottery has been found in the Middle East and dates to • between 8,000-7,000 BCE. • Japanese ceramics have flourished since over 4,000 years ago • Native American pottery shards have been found dating back over 3,000 years. •

  7. Protogeometric Belly-handled Amphora Athens 900 BCE Geometric Dipylon Krater Athens 750 BCE ProtoCorinthian Macmillan Aryballos 650 BCE Protoattic Polyphemus Painter 650 BCE Black Figure Exekias Suicide of Ajax 530 BCE Greek Pottery

  8. Zhou Dynasty 1000 BCE Qin Dynasty 210 BCE Song Dynasty 1200 Ming Dynasty 1450-1650

  9. 900-1400 Arizona & New Mexico

  10. Discuss commercially made ceramics in everyday life View some contemporary ceramic sites

  11. Omyacolor Plastiroc Air Dry Clay Equipment needed: Enough clay for each student to create at least one small project. If you absolutely have no money, use a homemade Salt/Flour/Water dough. Clay tools for blending, assorted forks, knives, pointed sticks or pin tools to manipulate and trim clay Plastic bags with ties for storing pieces until they are ready to dry Plastic sheeting to protect table tops Covered air-tight containers for clay storage

  12. How to wedge the clay using the “ram’s head” technique:

  13. It’s not like kneading bread dough which puts air into the dough.

  14. GreenwareUnfired pottery or sculpture. Leather-hard The condition of a clay body when much of the moisture has evaporated and shrinkage has just ended, but the clay is not totally dry. Carving, burnishing, or joining slabs are often done at this stage. Bisque Clay that has been fired to a state hard enough for glazing Slip Clay suspended in water. When it is a yogurt consistency it can be used to join pieces with scoring. When a cream consistency with a coloring agent added it can be painted on leather-hard pieces and burnished. Bone Dry Clay that has the moisture completely evaporated. It can no longer be scored and slipped without compromising the strength of the piece. Various States of Clay

  15. Students will squeeze or roll the clay between your hands into coils about ½ inch in diameter (a little thicker than a pencil).

  16. Some techniques: • Pinching: • • • Coiling • • • Slabwork •