Basics of Applied Behavior Analysis Early Autism Project, Inc
Applied Behavior Analysis • This process includes the following components which outline a reliable and accountable approach to behavior change (Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991). • Selection of interfering behavior or behavioral skill deficit • Identification of goals and objectives • Establishment of a method of measuring target behaviors • Evaluation of the current levels of performance (baseline) • Design and implementation of the interventions that teach new skills and/or reduce interfering behaviors • Continuous measurement of target behaviors to determine the effectiveness of the intervention, and • Ongoing evaluation of the effectiveness of the intervention, with modifications made as necessary to maintain and/or increase both the effectiveness and the efficiency of the intervention.
Behavior Analysis • Increasing Desired Behaviors • Decreasing Problem Behaviors
The Basics of Applied Behavior Analysis A→ B→ C Sd→R→Sr
Understanding Behavior Antecedent→Behavior→Consequence To change behavior we must first define what we want to change.
Behavior • Describing exactly what the person does….. • Clapping Hands • Turns over a desk • Running in a circle • Describing exactly what the person is not doing…. • Not able to ask for things • Not able to play with toys
Behavior • Behavior to increase: Learner is not able to follow receptive directions. • Behavior to decrease: Learner engages in aggression when asked to do something.
Understanding Behavior Antecedent→Behavior→Consequence After you have determined what you want to change you have to determine what is maintaining that behavior or what will maintain the behavior.
Consequence Consequence: object or event that follows a behavior
Consequence • Behavior to increase: Reinforcing the learner when you ask them to follow the direction and they do so correctly. (what will teach this skill) • Behavior to decrease: Demands are removed when the learner becomes aggressive. (what is maintaining the behavior now)
Understanding Behavior Antecedent→Behavior→Consequence To change behavior we must last determine what is causing the behavior to occur or will cause the behavior to occur.
Antecedent • Behavior to increase: Presenting the learner with the direction (i.e. clap hands) and prompting them to follow that direction. • Behavior to decrease: Use strong reinforcers, use good teaching procedures
Sd R Sr Discriminative Stimulus: The stimulus that is present when a particular behavior is reinforced. SD evokes behavior because that behavior has been reinforced in its presence
Article • Please read the following article: “Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children”