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Human Anatomy and Physiology

Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Human Anatomy and Physiology

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  1. Human Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1

  2. I.Overview of Anatomy and Physiology • ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­____________________= the study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts and their relationships to one another…..large body structures---gross anatomy • v.__________________anatomy(too small to be seen w/o a microscope) Anatomy Microscopic

  3. Physiology Cardiac physiology Neuron-physiology • _______________________study of how body and its parts work or function in nature….many subdivisions,like_______________________ and ______________________________ • Relationships between Anatomy and Physiology • ---The 2 are always related…Structures determine what functions can take place

  4. II. Levels of Structural Organization chemical molecules • At the ______________________level atoms combine to make ____________________. • At the __________________ level,__________are composed of molecules. • At the _______________________, it is made of the same type of cells,functioning together. cellular cells Tissue level

  5. At the ____________________level,different tissues work together for a common function. • At the organ system level different organs work together closely. • the highest level is the organism organ

  6. A.Organ System Overview • ___________________________________=external covering of the body;waterproofs,cushions and protects:excretes salts and urea in perspiration and helps regulate body ________________.Temp,pressure and pain receptors in the skin alert us at the body surface . Integumentary system temperature

  7. Skeletal System • __________________________________=consists of bones,cartilage,ligaments and joints.-supports body and provides framework for skeletal muscle-also protects….___________________-----formation of blood cells takes place in bone marrow ;also storehouse for minerals Hematopoiesis

  8. Muscular system • _______________________________=Contract or shorten to produce movement of body -skeletal muscles-or w/in organs-cardiac or smooth muscles • _______________________________=has brain,spinal cord ,nerves and sensory receptors as control system Nervous system

  9. _______________= controls body through hormonal control.Endocrine release hormones-chemicals-into the blood and they go to a target organ.These glands inc. the pituitary,thyroid,parathyroid,adrenals,thymus,pancreas,pineal,ovaries,and testesWhat is controlled includes growth,reproduction and food used by cells. Endocrine System

  10. Cardiovascular System • ____________includes the heart and blood vessels and blood,transporting oxygen and nutrients,hormones,etc….wbcs-protect • Lymphatic System- inc. lymphatic vessels,lymph nodes organs ,such as the spleen and tonsils.The vessels return fluid leaked from the blood back to blood…the nodes help clean the blood and are involved in immunity.

  11. ________________-Basically a tube running through the body from mouth to anus-inc. mouth,esophagus,stomach,sm. and lg. intestine,and rectum—Break down food and deliver the products to blood so it will go to cells---undigested returns to be eliminated as feces Digestive System

  12. Urinary System-removes nitrogen containing wastes from blood and excretes as urine---maintains body’s water and salt balance—inc. kidneys,ureters,bladder,urethra • Reproductive System-to produce offspring-----testes male/ovaries-female

  13. III. Maintaining Life • LIFE FUNCTIONS_ • Maintaining Boundaries-keep inside separate from outside • Cells have membranes • Body is surrounded by _________________ as will as does the internal organs. Integumentary system

  14. B.Movement. –promoted by muscular system- walking,etc….using fingers….and bones provide support • Movement also happens as________________________________are propelled through the organs Substances such as blood

  15. C.____________________-or Irritability is the ablity to sense changes (stimuli) in environment) and react • Nerve cells highly irritable • Other parts of your body respond to stimuli responsiveness

  16. D.Digestion-breaking down food into simple molecules to be absorbed into the blood,which goes to your body cells

  17. E.___________-refers to all chemical reactions that occur w/in body cells---makes nutrients and oxygen available to the blood and on the cardiovascular system to distribute needed substances throughout the body---regulated greatly by hormones metabolism

  18. indigestable • F.Excretion-process of removing wastes from body-removes nonuseful substances produced during digestion and metabolism-feces from _____________digestion leftovers • G._______________-Production of offspring • H.__________is an increase in size—cells must be created taster than destroyed reproduction growth

  19. SURVIVAL NEEDS Maintain life • The goal of most body systems is to __________________.These fragile ____________________ include the following: • 1-_______________---body takes in as food and chemical reactions release energy from it using O2.Carb’s are the main energy source…..Proteins provide nutrients and fats build cell structures ,a last source for energy and cushion organs . nutrients Survival needs

  20. O2 • 2-________________ is necessary to derive most energy----It is required in Cellular respiration…..it is in 20% of the air we breathe..It is also circulated to blood and cells by respiratory and cardio vascular systems • 3--Water-is 60-80 % body weight-most important molecule in the body and is the solvents for secretions and excretions….comes mostly from ingested foods and liquids and lost evaporation from lungs and skin and excretions

  21. Temperature • 4--_____________________must remain at around 37 degrees C (98 F).If it is too slow,metabolism stops and too high,proteins break down…..death occurs at either extreme. • 5--Atmospheric Pressure-- is the force on the surface of the body by the weight of air---atmospheric pressure----Too high altitudes may have gas exchange too low for metabolism

  22. IV. HOMEOSTASIS—body’s ability to maintain stable internal conditions(even though outside world changes) • The body is DYNAMIC within narrow limits • All organ systems involved examples;Nutrient blood levels,heart activity and blood pressure,,waste eliminated and body temp.

  23. Homeostatic Control Mechanisms: • ------3 components --what is regulated is called the variable • 1-_______________________sensor that monitors and changes in environment • 2-_______________________-Flows to here along afferent pathway-determines appropriate response or reaction. • 3-Effector-provides output to stimulus---along efferent pathway----results feed back to influence stimulus----turning off----NEGATIVE or turn on---positive feed back Most body mechanism are negative feed back. receptor Control center

  24. Directional terms- allow medical personal to describe exactly where one structure is in relationship to another.They include the following: • Superior-(cranial or cephalad)toward head or upper part • Inferior- away from head or lower part • Ventral-(anterior)front of body----front of • Dorsal-(posterior)backof body-back of • Medial- toward or at body midline;inner side • Lateral- away from midline;on the outer side • proximal-close to origin of body part or where it is attached • distal-farther from origin • superficial(external)---toward or at body surface • Deep(internal) away from body surface-more internal

  25. Regional Terms-Visible body landmarks----see figure 1.5 p.16----label in notes • ANTERIOR____ • Abdominal ---anterior trunk below ribs • Acromial----(Point) of shoulder • Antebrachial-forearm • Antecubital-ant. Surface of elbow • Axillary-armpit • Brachial-arm • Buccal-cheek • Carpal-wrist • Cervical --neck region • Coxal-hip • Crural-leg • Deltoid-curve of shoulder formed by lg deltoid muscle • Digital—fingers,toes

  26. Femoral---thigh • Fibular---lateral part of leg • Frontal –forehead • Inguinal-groin • Nasal • Oral • Orbital-eye • Patellar-knee • Pubic-genital • Sternal- breastbone • Tarsal-ankle • Thoracic-chest • Umbilical-naval

  27. POSTERIOR____ • Calcaneal-heel • Cephalic-head • Femoral-thigh • Gluteal-buttock • Lumbar---back area between ribs and hips • Occipital-back of head • Olecranal-post. Surface of elbow • Popliteal-post. Knee area • Sacral-area between hips • Scapular---shoulder blades

  28. BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS • In anatomy ,students make sections-or cuts---it is made along an imaginary line or __________.......being 3-D,we consider 3 types of planes • Sagittal section is lengthwise or longitudinally----If the right and left parts are equal it is median or midgasittal • Frontal section is lengthwise into ant. And post parts----also called coronal • a Tranverse Section is cut along a horizontal plane,making superior and inferior parts----also called cross-section plane