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Dagoberto’s Grammar Book! PowerPoint Presentation
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Dagoberto’s Grammar Book!

Dagoberto’s Grammar Book!

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Dagoberto’s Grammar Book!

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  1. Dagoberto’s Grammar Book! Buenos dias

  2. El Presente • presente = dropping inf and adding -ar -er or • Habitual actions or near-future actions • Mis padres me escriben son frecuencia” • “manana les mandounacarta”

  3. Stem changing verbz • E -> ie • o -> ue • e -> I • u -> ue (jugar) • No stem change in nosotros or vosotros • Construir, destruir, incluir, y influir add y • Incluyo, incluyes, incluye, incluyen D:

  4. Irregyo forms • Many –er and –ir verbs have irregyos • Cer or cir change to -zco • Ger or gir change to -jo • Several verbs have irregular –go endings and a few have individual irregularities. • Some irregyos stem change too • Where my –jo’s at?

  5. Irreg verbs • Dar = doy • Decir = digo • Estar = estoy • Ir = voy • Oir = oigo, oyes, oye, oyen

  6. Ser y estar • ESTAR: location or spatial relationships • Health • Physical state or condition • Emotional states • Certain weather expressions • Ongoing actions (progressive tenses) • Results of action (past participle) • “Lo-co,” temporary stuff

  7. Ser y estar contd. • Julio es alto = Julio is tall. • Quealtaestas, Julio = Well shoot Julio, you sure is gettin tall son! • Es vivo = sharp, quick-witted • Esta vivo = alive • Eslibre = liberated • Estalibre = available to do something • Eslisto = smart • Estalisto = ready Julio ->

  8. Gustar + similar verbs • Me gustan los aviones • Me gustastu • Me gusta pizza • ALWAYS singular if followed by verbs • Megustacantar y bailar

  9. Verboscomogustar • Fascinar • Molestar • Doler (o -> ue) • Disgustar • Apetecer • Faltar • Quedar

  10. Faltar y quedar • Faltar = lacks • Quedar = what someone has left, or how clothing fits or looks • Me faltanlaspiernas • Le quedabien en estacamiseta

  11. Preterito -ar -ir

  12. Imperfecto -ar -ir

  13. Diferencias! • Imperfect is for habitual actions in the past, or past actions with no definite beginning or end. • Hablaba con mi amigo mucho ayer • Also… • Age – cuandotenía 3 años • Time – Eranlasocho y media

  14. Diferencias! • Preteriteis for completed actions in the past • Look for • Fui a Target ayer • Dí un regalo a mi hermano la semanapasadaporquefuesucumpleaños • Look for words like ayer, anoche, and la ___ pasada. They signal preterite!

  15. PrEsEnTsUbJuNcTiVe • Subjunctive mood: attitudes, uncertain, hypothecital • -ar: e, es, e, emos, en • -er: a, as, a, amos, an

  16. pReSeNtSuBjUnCtIvE • W wishing / wanting • E emotionsD doubtD disbeliefI Impersonal Expressions (esbuenoque…)N negationG God / grief

  17. irregs • Tener (tenga) • Venir (venga) • Dar (de) • Ir (vaya) • Saber (sepa) • Haber (haya) • Estar (este) • Ser (sea)

  18. Verbs of Will and Influence • Sugerir – to suggest • Aconsejar – to advise • Importar – to be important, to matter • Insistir – to insist • Mandar – order • Prohibir – to prohibit • Recomendar – to recommend • Rogar – to beg, to plead

  19. Expressions of emotions • Alegrarse– to be happy • Esperar – to hope, to wish • Sentir – to be sorry, to regret • Sorprender – to surprise • Temer – to be afear’d • Estriste – it’s sad • Ojala – I hope (that) I wish (that)

  20. Doubt, Disbelief, and Denial • Dudar – to doubt • Negar – (e-ie) to deny • Esimposible – it’s impossible • Es Improbable – it’s improbable • No escierto / verdad – it’s not certain / true • No esseguro – it’s not certain

  21. Object pronouns • Hay direct object pronouns • Indirect object pronouns  TO or FOR whom • Y double object pronouns!

  22. IOPs • Carla siempreme da boletospara el cine. • Carla always gives me movie tickets. • Ella los consigue gratis. • She gets em for free.

  23. Direct OPs • Debespedirle el dinero de la apuesta. • Ledebespedir el dinero de la apuesta. • ^ Both are correct • Lo is genderless (like “it”)

  24. Double OPs • Precedes direct op when they are used together • Me mandaronlos boletosporcorreo. • Me los mandaronporcorreo. • If Le + La or Le +Lo, one turns to se • Le damoslasrevistasa Ricardo. = Se lasdamos

  25. Prep. pronouns Mi, ti, usted, el/ella/si (him/her/itself), nosotros/as, vosotros/as, ustedes, ellos/ellas/si (themselves) Queopinas de ella? Ay, mi amor, solo pienso en ti?

  26. Prep. Pronouns contd. • A + prep pronouns = mas emphasisio! • A mi me gusta papas fritas • Si mismo= himself, Mimismo = myself • When mi ti and si are used w con, they MAGICALLY MORPH into conmigo, contigo, y consigo!

  27. When these palabras show up, use tu y yo instead of mi and ti: • Entre, excepto, incluso, menos, salvo, y some other word I didn’t get

  28. Mono verbs • Let’s sit down = sentemos + nos • Sentemonos • Vayamos Vamanos

  29. Futuro • Endings (all the same):

  30. Futuro- Irregulars • Caber – Cabr- • Haber – Habr- • Poder – Podr- • Saber – Sabr- • Poner – Pondr- • Salir – Saldr- • Tener – Tendr- • Valer – Valdr- • Venir – Vendr- • Decir – Dir- • Hacer – Har- • Querer – Querr-

  31. Condicional • Used to express what would happen if something else happened • Also used to ask a question politely • Me gustariadoce tacos, por favor.

  32. Condicional • Endings: also all the same, and have the same irregular stems as el futuro

  33. PronombresRelativos • Que, el/la que, el/le cual, quien/quienes, cuyo • Que- people or things • Quien- people • Que is used with “el” or “la” after a preposition • Cual is used in formal settings or when referring to specific things • Cuyo is used for “whose”

  34. The Neuter Lo • Lo ____ (masculine singular adjective) • “Lo que” used like “That which,” • Lo is also used to express the most or the least of something • Lo mas, lo mejor • Lo menos, lo peor • Lo is ALSO used figuratively-ish to say “the ____ part” (like the best part or the worst part) • Lo importanteesqueestamosjuntos.

  35. Subjunctivo in Noun Clauses • Used when a subordinate clause is uncertain • Also used in cases when the antecedent is a • negative pronoun

  36. Present Perfect • Used to express what has recently happened • Uses present conjugation of “haber” and a past participle • -ar verbs become –ado • -ir verbs become –ido • Ex: he aprendido mucho Espanol el mi escuela.

  37. Present Perfect: Past Par. Irregs. • Abrir – abierto • Cubrir – cubierto • Decir – dicho • Escribir – escrito • Hacer – hecho • Morir – muerto • Poner – puesto • Resolver – resuelto • Romper – roto • Ver – visto • Volver - vuelto