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Chapter 11 Section 4

Chapter 11 Section 4

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Chapter 11 Section 4

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  1. Chapter 11 Section 4 Making the Peace

  2. The Costs of War • Loss of human life and materials • 1918 “pandemic” of influenza killed 20 million • Financial Toll • Rebuilding period, resentment among citizens • Allies demanded “reparations” • Political Turmoil • Governments collapsed, “radicals” emerged • Radicals pushed bolshevism (later Communism) • Colonial troops saw weakness and hoped for independence

  3. The Paris Peace Conference • Allies met to discuss the future of Europe • Conflicting Goals “The Big Three” • Wilson urged “peace without victory” • British prime minister David Lloyd George wanted money to build a post-war Britain “fit for heroes” • French leader Georges Clemenceau wanted a weak Germany that wouldn’t threaten France • Problems with Peace • Other leaders had other demands and interests • Many demanded land promised to them and their own national states (Italy, people governed by Russia, Austri-Hungary, or the Ottoman Empire) • Wilson wanted a League of Nations based on “collective security”

  4. The Treaty of Versailles • June 1919: Allies demanded that Germany sign the treaty • Germany was to take all the blame for the war • Germany had to pay huge reparations ($30 billion then, $2.7 trillion today) • Limited Germany military, returned Alsace and Lorraine to France, removed hundreds of miles of German territory in the east and west, stripped Germany of its colonies • Compelled many Germans to leave Russia, Poland, Alsace-Lorraine, and German colonies • Germans had no choice but to sign – led to resentment that would last for 20 years and eventually help cause another world war

  5. Outcome of the Peace Settlements • Other treaties were signed with the other Central Powers, leaving similar dissatisfaction • Self-Determination in Eastern Europe • New nations emerged where German, Austrian, and Russian Empires once ruled • Poland, Baltic states of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia all gained independence • New Republics of Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary in the Hapsbrg heartland • In the Balkans, Yugoslavia was created and dominated by Serbia

  6. Outcome of the Peace Settlements • The Mandate System • European colonies in Africa and Asia hoped for similar independence and an end to imperial rule • Instead, through “mandates” they were divided among the Allies (Britain, France, Japan, Australia) • Overlapping claims threatened peace settlements • It was supposed to be temporary, but the colonies felt betrayed • The League of Nations offers Hope • More than 40 nations joined, hoping for negotiations instead of future wars • Not the US. Senate wanted to prevent the US from being forced into war. This weakened the power of the League • The League only had influence over its members and could not prevent war • Still, a step in the right direction