Download
chemical and biological weapons n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chemical and Biological Weapons PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chemical and Biological Weapons

Chemical and Biological Weapons

2 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Chemical and Biological Weapons

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chemical and Biological Weapons Prepared by the Medical Association for Prevention of War

  2. Biological and Chemical Weapons • Which states possess them • What they are • The threat of terrorism • The international response MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  3. Where Are They?

  4. Current Stockpiles MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  5. Current Stockpiles MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  6. What Exactly Are These Weapons?

  7. What Is a Biological Weapon? • Uses a living organism or its toxic agent • delivery device • Both conventional and unconventional means of delivery MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  8. BIOLOGICAL AGENTS WITH POTENTIAL AS WEAPONS - A Selected List • Bacteria: Anthrax, Brucella, Melioidosis, Tularaemia, Plague • Toxins: Botulinum, Ricin • Rickettsiae: Q fever, Rickettsia (eg RMSF, Epidemic Typhus) • Fungi: Histoplasma, Cryptococcus • Viruses: Smallpox, Dengue, Yellow Fever, Ebola, Hanta, Lassa Fever, Marburg, Rift Valley fever, (Flu), Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, Chikungunya • ALSO: Animal, Plant Pathogens (eg FMD, West Nile virus, Wheat Rust, Glanders) MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  9. BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS : Choosing An Agent • Availability - may be straightforward eg Iraq-anthrax (from CDC) • Contagiousness - eg smallpox, plague - rapid epidemic development • Mortality -eg Marburg virus • Suitability for dissemination in infective form eg anthrax, Q fever highly resistant to dessication, heat, long viability • Lack of effective treatment or prophylaxis: • eg Ebola, Marburg, Smallpox (manipulated?) • for those responsive to antibiotics (eg Plague, Glanders) look for new resistant types MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  10. Advantages Of Biological Weapons • Multiple Methods For Delivery • Wide Utility - non-discriminating, cause sickness, death, panic, may disseminate widely, may be persistent • Good Logistics - cheap to make and store • Versatile - can be in small or large quantities • Defence May Be Difficult • Cause No Damage To Infrastructure • Easy To Conceal • ‘Status’ WMD - ‘poor man’s nuclear weapon’ MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  11. Disadvantages Of Biological Weapons • Slow Onset (except toxins) • Indiscriminate • Difficult To Control Distribution Esp If Contagious • Preventive and/or Treatment Measures For Some • Lack Of Impressive Precedents • Level Of Technical Sophistication At Least Moderate • International Taboo MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  12. What is a Chemical Weapon? • Uses the toxic properties of chemicals • Inexpensive to produce • Thousands of chemicals can be weaponised • Both conventional and unconventional means of delivery MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  13. Lethal Agents Blood Agents: Nerve Agents: Cyanogen chloride (CK) Tabin (GA) Hydrogen Cyanide (AC) Sarin (GB) Blister Agents: Pulmonary Agents: Lewisite (L) Chlorine Sulfur mustard gas (HD, H, HT, HL, HQ) Phosgene (CG) Non-Lethal Agents Incapacitating Agents: Riot Control Agents: Agent 15 (BZ) Pepper Spray (OC) Chemical Weapons MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  14. Advantages of chemical weapons • Inexpensive to produce • Multiple means of delivery • Psychological as well as physical impact • ‘Status’ WMD - ‘poor man’s nuclear weapon’ MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  15. Disadvantages of chemical weapons • Some agents require sophisticated chemical processing • Often unpredictable effects • Effects may not be confined to a target area • International taboo MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  16. How are these weapons used?

  17. History of Biological and Chemical Weapons • Both biological and chemical warfare have a very long history • WWI: Chemical weapons used by both sides • WWII: Biological and chemical weapons used by Japan, chemical weapons used by Germany MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  18. History of Biological and Chemical Weapons: The Cold War • Dwarfed by Cold War nuclear threat • Research and development continued • Chemical weapons used in: Yemen Afghanistan Iraq Chad Iran • Biological weapons less usable • 1972 Biological Weapons Convention MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  19. Terrorism and Biological and Chemical Weapons • Both chemical weapons and biological weapons have been used on numerous occasions in last 25 years • Biological weapons are generally more suited to terrorist use MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  20. ‘…every major new technology of the past has come to be exploited, intensively, not only for peaceful purposes, but for hostile ones.’ ‘..the spread of advanced biotechnology and the new accessibility of information about it offer new tools to any country or ill-minded group intending to develop a biological weapon.’ WHO 2001 WHO Report MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  21. ‘The accessibility of biological agents on a militarily significant scale has been much enhanced by advances in industrial microbiology and its spreading practice throughout the world.’ WHO 2001 WHO Report MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  22. Case study

  23. Case Study: Aum Shinrikyo • Biological weapon first choice • As early as 1990 they had a lab for biotoxins (eg Botulinum) • Released Botulin toxin near the Diet in April 1990 to no effect • Attempted to make an effective aerosol for Botulin, Anthrax, Cholera and Q fever • 1993 sprayed Botulin toxin in Tokyo to coincide with the wedding of the Crown Prince - no effect • June 1993 released Anthrax spores from a roof in Tokyo - again no observed effect • Total 9 failed Biological attempts in central Tokyo • Turned to chemical weapons – Sarin THEIR STORY SHOWS THE DIFFICULTY OF CONDUCTING A • SUCCESSFUL BIOTERRORISM ATTACK MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  24. Why is Anthrax So Popular As a Biological Weapon? • Spores Are Tough • Fairly Easy To Culture • Have A Long Shelf-life MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  25. What is Anthrax? • A Disease Of Grazing Animals • Bacillus Anthracis MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  26. What Does Anthrax Do To a Human? • A skin infection, • Nasty but treatable with antibiotics • More serious intestinal disease - frequently fatal • Inhaling the spores – nearly always fatal • Incubation period is anywhere from two days to two months MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  27. States That Developed Anthrax Weapons • Canada • Germany • Iraq • Japan • Soviet Union • United Kingdom • United States MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  28. The International Response

  29. Chemical and Biological Weapons and International Law The 1925 Geneva Protocol • Prohibits the use of asphyxiating, poisonous, or other gases and all analogous liquids, materials or devices in warfare • ‘Customary international law’ • Bans use not possession • No-first-use-treaty MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  30. Chemical and Biological Weapons and International Law 1972 Biological Weapons Convention • Negotiations were concluded following the US unilaterally renounced biological weapons • First treaty to ban an entire class of weapons • Prohibits development, production, stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons • Does not obstruct non-hostile use of biological agents but still covers future weaponisation of agents MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  31. Chemical and Biological Weapons and International Law 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention • Took over twenty years of multilateral negotiation • Prohibits the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention, transfer and use of chemical weapons • Also prohibits states from assisting or encouraging others in relation to chemical weapons • Creates Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  32. Chemical and Biological Weapons and International Law Unresolved Issues • Biological Weapons Convention Verification • Non-signatories to Biological and Chemical Weapons Conventions • Clandestine Proliferation MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  33. Non-signatories to the BWC MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  34. Non-signatories to the CWC MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  35. What You Can Do

  36. MAPW and the fight against chemical and biological weapons The Medical Association for Prevention of War continues to: • Educate health professionals, scientists and the general public about the dangers of chemical and biological weapons • Lobby the Australian government to support the Chemical and Biological Weapons Convention regimes and other related non-proliferation architecture • Campaign for a world free of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006

  37. Medical Association for Prevention of War Australia (MAPW) National Office: P.O. Box 1379, Carlton VIC 3053, Australia Ph: 03 8344 1637 Fax: 03 8344 1638 www.mapw.org.aumapw@mapw.org.au Australian affiliate of International Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) MAPW (Australia) Bio & Chem Weapons 2006