Introduction Mangaung Correctional Centre (MCC), managed by GSL South Africa, is a privately operated correctional centre, in partnership with the Government of South Africa, located on the outskirts of Bloemfontein, in the Free State Province. MCC is entrusted with a total of 2928 maximum security inmates whose incarceration conditions and needs are governed by a 25-year contract with the government. We are able to meet the most important requirements of the contract namely the human treatment and development of inmates as well as the safeguarding of the Community against criminal elements by means of: • Well and modern designed facilities that is conducive for safe custody but also for development and humane treatment of inmates; • Modern facility equipment and professional staff to ensure the provision of effective incarceration, efficient control measures and development of inmates; • Well designed and equipped internal Healthcare and food preparation facilities with well trained professional staff to cater for inmates’ health care and dietary needs. At MCC the focus is on the development and empowerment of inmates to become accountable and responsible citizens upon their release back into society. This is done through a variety of development, empowerment and therapeutic interventions.
History of MCC • On 10 March 1999, the Minister announced that the Ikhwezi-Consortium was awarded the 2928-bed maximum security centre in Bloemfontein. • Further negotiations followed and the contract was signed with the Department of Correctional Services on 24 March 2000. • Construction work commenced on site on 1 April 2000 and was completed by 30 June 2001. • MCC became operational on 1 July 2001.
Challenges Being the first privately operating prison in South Africa, the Company (GSL) had to face the following challenges since signing of the Contract, throughout the construction phase and thereafter during the initial phase-in process of inmates and subsequently during operation of the centre to date: • To deliver the centre on time; • The on-budget delivery of the centre; • To ensure the availability of policies and procedures which would effectuate Contract compliance; • To recruit sufficient employees according to Contractual Requirements (BEE appointments within specific radius of 100 kilometers). MCC has a compliment of 451 full time employees, of which 384 are Previously Disadvantaged Individuals (PDI’s). More than 90% of these employees were recruited from local communities, situated within a 100 km radius of the centre. MCC recruit locally in order to stimulate the local economy by addressing unemployment in the areas of operation.
Our commitment to employ Previously Disadvantaged Individuals is evident from the following profiles: Employee Profile: • African: 76.49% • Coloured: 07.77% • Indian: 00.89% • White: 14.85% Gender and Disabled Profile: • Female: 30.2% • Male: 69.8% • Disabled Persons: 3
Challenges continues • To train the inexperienced recruited employees in such way that they would be able to deal effectively and according to Company Standards with the very experienced inmates that are being transferred to MCC; • To acquaint staff with the Companies non-negotiable way of dealing with inmates with specific reference to the principles of Unit Management and Direct Supervision; • To deal with the risk created by the gathering of gangsters/leaders from various centres whose initial aim was to de-stabilize the centre; • To ensure that Government gets value for money by producing according to Contractual requirements; • To get used to the fact that you are constantly monitored on contract delivery by the Controllers (DCS Officials) and simultaneously build a sound working relationship with these officials; • To ensure that officials do not become complacent and in the process creates a risk for the Company being financially penalized by Government; • To constantly revise our developmental programmes in order to ensure that the needs of inmates, serving long sentences, are being met; • To ensure that the buildings and equipment are maintained in such a way that it can be handed over to Government in perfect condition after contract expiry;
Challenges continues • To establish such good working relationships with our colleagues at DCS that the partnership can serve as an example to others and be utilized effectively for knowledge transfer. Research by professor Tapscott on Best Practices in centres concluded that 53 of the 84 best practices were identified in the two private centres in SA; • To provide treatment to the increasing HIV population; • To manage the Contract cost effectively without impeding on service delivery; taken into account unforeseen price increases, (ESKOM) • To retain staff notwithstanding the fact that external institutions are recruiting our staff due to the high quality of training and development which we deliver to our employees.
Scope of Operations • Like any other correctional centre of DCS, MCC is governed by the Correctional Services Act (111 of 1998) and has to abide to all relevant legislation. • In addition to the above MCC has to comply to specific contractual outcomes as specified by Government in the Contract between the two parties. • The following contractual outcomes is seen as the most relevant for the purpose of this presentation:
1. Safe Custody of inmates In compliance to the relevant Legislation and contractual requirements regarding the safe custody of inmates entrusted to our care, the following extraordinary measures are in place at MCC. • Risk assessment: Every inmate entering or leaving the centre is risk assessed in terms of violence and escape risk. • Admission assessment: Aimed at determining security, health and suicide risk within 72 hours of admission. • Intelligence System: Intelligence is gathered by means of security reports, as well as sophisticated equipment to detect and prevent security risks or incidents. • Searching programme: A dedicated search team, utilizing specialized equipment and Sniffer drug dogs, performs continuous searching of employees, visitors, inmates and the centre. Since the unfortunate escape on 1 January 2002 and the subsequent upgrading of the weaknesses no repetition took place. • Security system: A sophisticated security system provides the ability to scale down on personnel, monitor movements and be able to provide post-incident evidence. • Incident management: To manage serious incidents in conjunction with external security agencies
2. Safe environment Contractually the Contractor has to maintain order, control, discipline and a safe environment for staff and inmates. This is effectuated by means of: • Motivating inmates to behave well in providing: • Incentives and earned privileges based on good behaviour; • Providing gratuity for participation in programmes of development and activities; • Dealing with their complaints efficiently by means of an effective grievance procedure. • Ensure that deficiencies to cells/buildings does not enable inmates to escape: • Deficiencies must be remedied within 24 hours. • Ensure that inmates who are not complying to rules do not destabilize the operation of the centre: • Inmates are charged by the Contractor and adjudicated by the Controllers. • A system of behaviour modification programmes is applied to inmates who transgress. • Anti-bullying procedures are in place.
2. Safe environment continues • A specially trained group of employees (Emergency Support Team) are the only employees who are allowed to use force when incidents and emergencies arise. In such cases the Controllers must approve and/or be informed of the circumstances of the incident which caused the use of force. • Contractor must have comprehensive incident and command arrangements in place. • Contractor is not allowed to rely on DCS for support in case of an emergency. Must make use of local security agencies. • The Contractor is fully responsiblefor Health and Safety. The Contractor must appoint a fully trained Health and Safety Officer who have to manage the Health and Safety System with the assistance of representatives from all departments. • Drug control is a priority for the Company and we are very successful due to: • Effective searching of all employees, visitors and inmates. • Mandatory Drug Testing when necessary. • Use of Sniffer drug dogs. • Effective intelligence system.
2. Safe environment The above measures with specific reference to the behaviour modification programmes proved to be very successful and resulted into the incident rate to decrease from 23 to an average of 2 incidents per month.
3. Decent conditions and meeting inmates’ needs The following extraordinary measures are in process at MCC: Induction process: • 14 Day induction which includes a computerized Assessment System for Prisoners (ASP) and Sentence Plan for each individual inmate. • Signing of a compact agreement by inmates. Visits to inmates: • Visitor’s reception area equipped with a vending machine for hot and cold drinks. • 48-Hour pre-booking system. • Daily visiting hours. • Security registration of all visitors to inmates. • Special accommodation for children who visit. • Special measures for visiting mothers with babies as well as disabled visitors.
3. Decent conditions and meeting inmates’ needs Family contact: • Inmates to receive mail within 24-hours after receival at MCC. • One free letter (stationary and postage) per week at cost of Contractor. • Unlimited telephone calls at inmate cost. • One free call upon Admission at MCC. Inmate clothing: • All inmates to be issued with adequate range of blue coloured clothing according to season. Range of clothing specified by Contract. • No private clothing allowed. • Distinctive range of clothing to be worn by inmates who poses an escape risk.
3. Decent conditions and meeting inmates’ needs Food services: • Food services are outsourced to a sub-contractor. • Three nutritious meals are provided on a daily basis. • 15-Day menu cycle. • Menus developed and approved by Food Services sub-contractor’s dietitian. • Special diets i.e. therapeutic diets will be provided when prescribed by a medical doctor and religious diets as recommended by the Chaplain. All other inmates will receive a high fibre/high protein diet. All qualifying HIV positive inmates receive a supplementary diet. • Food samples of all meals must be retained for a period of 4 days from date of serving and is available for inspection. • To avoid any penalties meals must be served within the specified contractual time.
3. Decent conditions and meeting inmates’ needs Healthcare Services: • Healthcare services are out sourced to a sub-contractor which have to have a full health care compliment of staff available 24-hours a day and has to respond to emergencies according to specified contractual times. • A well designed healthcare centre forms part of the centre. • A fully equipped chemist, x-ray facility, doctors’ consultation rooms, dentist facility, emergency treatment room forms part of the centre. • Healthcare is also provided in the housing blocks (units). • Inmates are only allowed to smoke in designated smoking areas (exercise yards). • There is a medical procedure in place for the following category of inmates: • Mentally ill • Chronically illness • Those who present a suicide and self-harm risk (SASH).
4. Addressing inmates’ needs in a structured approach A proper assessment is done to all inmates admitted to MCC. During Admission and Induction the assessments are used to determine risks, needs, strengths and challenges. The outcome of the assessment is used to draw up a proper sentence plan for individual inmates. This is done by the Case Management Coordinator and forms the basis of all treatment/developmental programmes that the inmate will have to undergo while incarcerated at MCC. All inmates are subjected to a structured day program which entails that they are unlocked from 07h30 in the morning and are only locked up in the evening at 19h30: • The structured day program consists of two shifts, a morning and afternoon shift. • All activities/program are structured into the shift system. • Inmates are scheduled to attend work/programs while the other group will be scheduled to participate into free activities. (Sport, recreation etc.)
4. Addressing inmates’ needs in a structured approach Structured day programme A structured day programme is followed in MCC. The Structured Day Programme is followed Monday to Sunday, and it schedules all the general routines that take place in the centre and in the various units. The Structured Day Programme is scheduled to accommodate movement management of inmates as well as space management. It is compiled around eight key components, namely: • Work • Education • Vocational training • Physical education • Counselling • Domestic activities • Lifestyle options • Quiet period
4. Addressing inmates’ needs in a structured approach Inmate Care and Empowerment: The aim of Inmate Care and Empowerment is to provide: • A caring and empowering environment • Opportunities and programmes for development. • Inmates the opportunity to be accountable and responsible citizens. Defining Care: By care we intend to view and treat an inmate as a human being with potential to be a good citizen who can contribute in a meaningful way to others and the community. Care comprises of aspects like: acceptance, tolerance, respect, showing of concern, empathy, active listening, guardianship, protection, being considerate, sensitive to needs, a therapeutic relation, mentoring, a believe in potential and having hope for an inmate. If we view and treat inmates in this way, their whole well-being will be the object of our care. To care does not mean a “soft” approach in which we will be hesitant to reprimand and or correct wrong attitude and behaviour.
4. Addressing inmates’ needs in a structured approach Defining Empowerment: By empowerment we indicate to facilitate personal growth and skills for inmates through processes, opportunities and programmes to address the challenges of life in a way that it will reflect good citizenship. In order to make inmates competent to address the challenges of life in a way that will reflect good citizenship – protecting and promoting human rights of others.
4. Addressing inmates’ needs in a structured approach Education department: Education is high on our priority list and it is therefore imperative that a great deal of development is put into the improvement of inmate qualifications through proper Education. Education promotes the culture of learning amongst all the inmates and has become the pride of MCC in dealing with individual needs, mental capacities and aptitudes as far as education is concerned. Eight highly skilled and dedicated educationists provide quality educational programmes. All the educationists are trained in Outcome Based Education (OBE) and apply it in their tuition. MCC has a school called the Liberty Adult Learning Centre. Classes in the Liberty Adult Learning Centreare presented to enhance the educational levels of the inmates, namely: • Mother Tongue • ABET Level 1 – 4 • Grade 11 • Grade 12 • Tertiary studies (own financial responsibility and Grade 12 pre-requisite).
4. Addressing inmates’ needs in a structured approach Successes: • Best ABET Adult Learning Centre in the Free State (2007) • Best ABET Adult Learning Centre Educators (2007) • Runner-up – ABET Adult Learning Centre in SA (2007) • Runner-up – ABET Adult Learning Centre Educators (2007) • Average of 93% pass rate in Grade 12 (2007)
4. Addressing inmates’ needs in a structured approach Vocational Training: Vocational training courses are presented in support of the Correctional Services’ White Paper as to enhance the productive capacity of offenders in a variety of suitable developmental activities and skills. These courses include the following: • Basic computer and Business Skills • Office machine Operator • Candle Making • Garment Making • Home Care • Horticulture • Leatherwork • Woodwork • Upholstery • Cleaning Services • Hobby Making (Box making) • Entrepreneurial Skills
4. Addressing inmates’ needs in a structured approach Successes: We are exceeding the Contractual stipulation in this regard. During the past six (6) years a substantial number of certificates were obtained by individual inmates in different courses presented at Vocational Training. The following figures reflect the positive manner in which the figure has grown from 331 in year one compared to the 1171 in the past year of operation:
4. Addressing inmates’ needs in a structured approach Social work services: • Social workers (08) and Social Auxiliary Workers (PDSO’s) (18) render holistic programmes to inmates to develop their knowledge, skills and values. • The facilitation of psychosocial programmes address offence specific needs and has the aim to address remorse and guilt to enable the inmates to develop victim empathy and restore justice. • The outcome of these programmes focus on addressing the challenges of life in a way that it will reflect accountable and responsible citizenship. • The average sessions rendered by social workers per month is 125 sessions involving 513 inmates.
4. Addressing inmates’ needs in a structured approach Psychological services: • Psychologists focus on the offending behaviour of inmates in order to address those factors that initially contributed to the inmate’s criminal behaviour. • The facilitation of psychological programmes aims at addressing offence specific needs and develops remorse and guilt to enable the inmate to be in a position to extend victim empathy and restore justice. • There are two fulltime psychologists employed by MCC as well as two psychologists employed by the Healthcare subcontractor. • They are assisted by an external psychiatrist.
4. Addressing inmates’ needs in a structured approach Activities and leisure: • Activities have the aim to ensure that sport, recreation and sport administration programmes are provided to all interested inmates in the centre, with the aim to encourage and stimulate self-development. • Fourteen activity officers are employed and they are covering a total of more than a 1 000 activities/programmes to inmates per month. Successes: • The MCC Choral Choir under the guidance of an activity officer received an accolade from the CEO of GSL, Alan Jones, regarding their excellent performance and on recommendation a recording of their performances will be made for internal distribution in GSL.
4. Addressing inmates’ needs in a structured approach • Library services: • A fulltime appointed librarian ensure that the library is sufficiently stocked and that inmates get the opportunity to make use of these services either in the library or in the living units via a trolley service. • An average 3630 books is issued to inmates per month. • MCC acknowledges the right of an inmate to reading material as included in the Constitution. • Inmates must be afforded the maximum opportunity for development while they are in prison. • To ensure this, a schedule of rostered attendance at the library is used. • Each inmate receives two opportunities per week to access the library services.
4. Addressing inmates’ needs in a structured approach Industries: • Currently at MCC there are three sanctioned companies operating industries. • MCC believe that it is essential that inmates do receive the opportunity to work in an industrial environment to establish workplace ethics and workplace discipline. • During the production phase, inmates are trained in line with acceptable industrial standards and are taught how to master production work. • Sanctioned contractors train inmates in the manufacturing of clothing, metal work and bread production.
4. Addressing inmates’ needs in a structured approach Religious Care: A full time Chaplain supported by fifty-three religious workers from 31 different churches/faiths are involved in providing religious care to inmates. Church services, group studies, personal counselling, choir, video, audio and library services are available to inmates. We are by far exceeding the contract stipulations with regard to church services/meetings. The following services are rendered: • Church services for all dominations • Small group discussions • Prayer meetings • Personal interview or counseling • Religious teaching
4. Addressing inmates’ needs in a structured approach • Distribution of religious literature • Preparation for release • Contact with family • Restorative Justice Successes: An average of religious care services/meetings per month: • Services/meetings: 169 • Inmates attending: 4642
5. General MCC has to submit a Strategic Plan for the centre to the Department of Correctional Services (DCS) every 5 years. This strategic plan has to be in line with DCS’s “White Paper” and other guidelines as indicated by DCS. All employees working in Mangaung Correctional Centre must be certified by DCS to work with inmates. Before employees are certified DCS ensures that the employees comply to pre-determined guidelines for certification. DCS has a Correctional Services Controller on site at Mangaung Correctional Centre. The Controller and his staff has unrestricted access to the centre at any time. Daily reports have to be submitted to the Controller on the following but not limited to: • Attendance records • Staffing levels on a daily basis. • Assaults on members • Use of force by members • Incident register • Vacancies
5. General All employees of MCC has to be fully trained in their duties and functions that is pre-approved by the Commissioner of DCS. All staff will undergo continuation training of 40 hours per year. The Contractor will recruit, train and maintain agreed upon staffing levels so that the requirements of the Contractor including the provision of leave for training, annual holidays, sick leave and emergencies can be fulfilled.
6. Community Involvement The centre has well-established community involvement programmes, suitable for the individual inmate, the community and DCS’s needs.. Examples of current Community Involvement Programmes are: Donation of vegetables to the needy (up to date 70 tons donated); • Refurbishing of school desks at historically disadvantaged communities (up to date 554 desks have been refurbished); • Addressing special needs at Bartimea School for the deaf and blind. This project exists of having inmates reading stories and recording it on a CD for the blind to listen to (up to date 240 stories recorded). • Winter warmer projects – donating of second hand clothing to the need since 2006; • Life Solutions Programme – Employee of MCC facilitates courses on skills development to children who are in conflict with the Law since 2005; • Participation in the yearly “16 Days of Activism Against Woman and Child Abuse” campaigns since 2006; • Refurbishing of Victim Support Rooms at SAPS Police Stations since 2006; • Community Indabas takes place on a regular basis.
6. Community Involvement Successes: • Free State Premiers Award – Gold Award in the Private Sector, State Agencies and Parastatals section (2007).
7. Achievements/Awards (not mentioned above) • NOSA Audit – Four Star rating awarded (2008). • Directors Special Excellence Award for Enhancing Security of the prison (2007). • Directors Special Excellence Award for Outstanding Performance (2006). • SAFMA – Facilities Management Project of the Year Award (2005). • Facility Management audit by external independent experts – rating of 90% and more achieved each year since opening of the centre. • Monthly external audit on catering services – average of 90% maintained since 2006.
8. Remarks received by external visitors • Martin Neary (Former British Commissioner of Correctional Services) – “I found the day absolutely fascinating and I am left entirely convinced about the feasibility of running a prison of similar size in the UK. I have seen very few prisons anywhere in the world that I would consider to be better that yours.” • Nathan Erasmus (Inspecting Judge) – “If we want to achieve the goal of restoring dignity in order to protect dignity you are making an enormous contribution, thank you and good luck!”. • Me. R. Reddy (OSW, The Presidency) – “ Excellent institution with use of technology and humane development as a concept for rehabilitation. This is a benchmark for other prison centres to emulate it as a best practice for correctional services in South Africa”. • Me. Wendy Lucas Bull (Peotana Group Holdings) – “A very professional and human centered correctional facility. We are very impressed. Congratulations’.
8. Remarks received by external visitors • The South African Minister of Corrections, The Honorable Ngconde Balfour MP during a certification ceremony for inmates at the facility said: • “…You have proven that rehabilitation of offenders is not a dream and if done consistently with clear outcomes it can be achieved. In this regard, I want to acknowledge the work done by the management and personnel of Mangaung. • …They (management and personnel of Mangaung) are going well beyond expectations and the inmates are the main beneficiaries of this approach.”