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Absolutism in France

Absolutism in France

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Absolutism in France

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  1. Absolutism in France

  2. Political Centralization • Louis XIV learned from the mistakes of Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin • Ruled through councils composed of loyal ministers • Preserved regional autonomy except in Paris • Used the Palace of Versailles as propaganda • Divine Right of Kings

  3. The Palace of Versailles

  4. Religion • Louis XIV hounded Huguenots out of public life and bribed them to convert • Quartered troops in their towns • Revoked the Edict on Nantes in 1685 • A quarter of a million Protestants emigrated • Declaration of the Clergy of France – royal approval for clergy to leave France, can’t appeal to Pope, no excommunicating officials, royal assent for papal laws

  5. Acquisition of Colonies France acquired territories in: • North America: the St. Lawrence River Valley; the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys • The Caribbean: Saint Domingue (Haiti), Guadeloupe, Martinique • Trading posts in West Africa and India

  6. The Sun King’s Major Wars War of Devolution: (1667-1668) Franco-Dutch War: (1672-1678) • France, Sweden, England, Munster and Cologne vs. The Dutch Republic, Austria, Prussia and Spain • Reasons= trade rivalries, expansionism and revenge for War of Devolution • Ends with the Treaty of Nimwegen. France gains Franche-Comte and more territories from the Spanish Netherlands War of the Reunions: (1683-1684) Nine Years War: (1688-1697) • France vs. H.R.E. , England, Spain, Dutch Rep., Sweden etc. • Revocation of Edict of Nantes, commercial interests in N. Am. Louis preemptive strike. • Treaty of Ryswick – recognize William III

  7. War of the Spanish Succession: (1702-1714) • vs. England, Holland, H.R.E. (Grand Alliance) • Charles II of Spain leaves his inheritance to Louis XIV grandson • The Grand Alliance wanted to prevent France from becoming too powerful. • Treaty of Utrecht gives Gibralter to England making it a Mediterranean power, Philip renounces French throne, Sicily and Milan to Savoy, H.R.E. receives Spanish Netherlands, Naples and Sardinia.

  8. Battle of Ramilles in the War of The Spanish Succession

  9. The Ascendency of Cardinal Fleury • Tutor to the young Louis XV and served as defacto first minister from 1726 until his death in 1743 • Prudently managed France’s finances • Persecuted Catholic Jansenists and Freemasons • Promoted peace with France’s enemies but left France unprepared for the War of the Austrian Succession