In the 1500s and 1600s, Louis XIV and other European Monarchs created powerful nations. Building large bureaucracies and powerful armies
Rebuilding France In the late 1500s, wars between the Huguenots (French Protestants) and Catholics ripped France apart St. Bartholomew's Day: August 24, 1572
Henry IV Henry, a Huguenot, inherited the French Throne in 1589 “Paris is well worth a Mass
Edict of Nantes In 1598, Henry issued the Edict of Nantes: This promised religious toleration of Huguenots, and allowed them to fortify towns and cities Henry build the government: Roads, bridges, agriculture, the bureacracy Touched every aspect in life REDUCED THE POWER OF NOBLES
Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu In 1610, Louis inherited the throne at the age of 9. Cardinal Richelieu helped secure royal power over that of the nobles Gave them high posts in the army or royal court, and destroyed walls around their towns
Louis XIV Inherited the throne at age 5 (1642), so was helped by Mazarin The Fronde: 1648-53 Louis XIII chased out of Paris
L'etat, c'est moi – Louis XIV in Voltaire 1661 – “I have been pleased to entrust the government of my affairs to the late Cardinal. It is now time that I govern them myself.” – Louis XIV
The royal power is absolute... Without this absolute authority, the king could neither do good, nor repress evil. It is necessary that his power be such that no one can escape him.” – Bishop Bossuet on Louis XIV The Sun King
Louis Expanding Power Louis expanded the bureaucracy – he appointed “intendants” – royal officials who collected taxes and recruited soldiers Wealthy Middle Class Created an army of 300,000 soldiers, the strongest in Europe Overseas colonies, tariffs to bolster industry, new lands for mining and farming But he was always short on cash....
Assessing Louis XIV Louis ruled France for 72 years French culture, manners, and customs became the European upper class taste Revoked the Edict of Nantes, causing over 100,000 Huguenots to flee... unfortunately, they were essential to his economy
Louis XVI – 1774 - 1791 Louis inherited the French throne when he was just about 20 years old He had problems of debt to deal with, as well as growing discontent amongst the French population Bread prices were rising, and people were making less money
The Power Disparity Most of the power in France resided in the first two “estates” – the clergy and the nobility These estates paid no taxes Instead, the entire tax burden fell to the 3rd estate
The Estates Assemble Due to the absolute power of the monarchy, the “Estates General,” the representative body of France had not met for 175 years In May 1789, Louis assembled the estates to meet to vote on a new tax – for the first 2 estates to help solve France's massive debt The National Assembly Forms – The Troops assemble
Early Stages of the Revolution Storming of the Bastille – July 14, 1789
Early Stages of the Revolution Storming of the Bastille – July 14, 1789 Is this another Rebellion...? No Sire! It is a revolution!!
Declaration of Rights of Man – Aug 4, 1789 All men are “born and remain free and equal in rights...” they enjoy natural rights to “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.”
The Path of the Revolution The Revolution did not alter the situation as much as many had hoped... so many, a group known as the Jacobins, became extreme...
The Reign of Terror If the spring of popular government in time of peace is virtue, the springs of popular government in revolution are at once virtue and terror: virtue, without which terror is fatal; terror, without which virtue is powerless. Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible...It has been said that terror is the principle of despotic government. Does your government therefore resemble despotism? Yes, as the sword that gleams in the hands of the heroes of liberty resembles that with which the henchmen of tyranny are armed. Maximilien Robespierre
The Reign of Terror July 1793 – July 1794 ~ 40,000 Dead 15% nobles 15% clergy Peasants