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The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)

The Thirty Years War (1618-1648). 1618-1648. Characteristics of the Thirty Years War. The Holy Roman Empire (Germany) was the battleground. At the beginning  it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants. At the end  it was Habsburg power that was threatened.

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The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)

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  1. TheThirty Years War (1618-1648)

  2. 1618-1648

  3. Characteristics of the Thirty Years War • The Holy Roman Empire (Germany) was the battleground. • At the beginning  it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants. • At the end  it was Habsburg power that was threatened. • Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.

  4. Thirty Years War • Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625) • Ferdinand of Bohemia … HRE Ferdinand II • Defenestration of Prague • Danish Phase (1625 – 1629) • Swedish Phase (1630 – 1635) • French-Swedish Phase (1635 – 1648)

  5. Loss of German Lives in 30 Years’ War

  6. Treaty of Westphalia (1648)

  7. 1688-1700

  8. Nobody Was Happy! • Many Protestants felt betrayed. • The pope denounced it. • Only merit  it ended the fighting in a war that became intolerable! • For the next few centuries, this war was blamed for everything that went wrong in Central Europe.

  9. Elizabethan England

  10. Queen Elizabeth Tudor I • Born: September 7, 1533 to King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife. • Coronated: January 15, 1559 at Westminster Abbey • Died: March 24, 1603 at age 69

  11. Elizabeth’s Refusal to Marry

  12. Re-Establishing Protestantism

  13. The Act of Supremacy • Gave Elizabeth ultimate control of the Church of England. • Title of monarch modified to "Supreme Governor of the Church in England".  • Also included an oath of loyalty to the Queen that the clergy were expected to take. • If they did not take it, then they would lose their office. 

  14. The Northern Rebellion

  15. Scotland • Many believed that Mary, Queen of Scots, a catholic, was the rightful Queen of England. • Since Mary too was a female sovereign Queen, Elizabeth was careful about how she recognized Mary’s power because she didn’t want to be in the same situation. • After Mary was forced out of Scotland and fled to England, Elizabeth locked her up. • Although Elizabeth did not want to have her cousin executed, she was forced to send Mary to execution after another plot to overthrow Elizabeth was uncovered.

  16. War with Spain • Elizabeth had rebuked repeated offers of marriage from Philip II of Spain • This angered him • He also saw himself as the champion of Catholicism and sought to crush the Protestant Brits • WAR!!!

  17. 1588 • British troops mass at Tilbury in anticipation of Spanish invasion • Elizabeth delivers a moving speech • Spanish Armada sails for England • Weather and Sir Francis Drake destroy Spanish Armada (1588) • England on the ascent .. Spain in decline

  18. That’s a lot of wrecked ships!

  19. Spanish Armada

  20. Succession • On her deathbed, Elizabeth passed the crown onto James of Scotland. • He was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, Elizabeth’s cousin • Elizabeth felt comfortable in giving the crown to James because he had been raised by Protestant minister with whom Elizabeth had a correspondence.

  21. How She Left the Country • England was one of the most powerful and prosperous countries in the world. • In spite of this, the country was saddled with tremendous debt • It had proved itself to be the strongest Naval force in the World. • "She is only a woman, only mistress of half an island," marvelled Pope Sixtus V, "and yet she makes herself feared by Spain, by France, by the Empire, by all"

  22. EnglishConstitutionalMonarchy Mayo

  23. Two Models Parliamentary Monarchy Political Absolutism France England

  24. Two Governmental Models • Military organization had a immense impact on political development • Military was much more expensive that it was previously • Monarchies tied to assemblies, parliaments, etc. had trouble raising money

  25. Constitutionalism v. Absolutism

  26. Monarchy’s attempt to raise revenue through new taxation undermined local nobility and land owners Puritans (Protestant religious movement) opposed the Stuart monarchy French nobility was dependent on Louis XIV goodwill and patronage … support benefited them Louis XIV crush Protestant communities and gained support of Catholics (one religion) England v. France

  27. Parliament was long established and bargained with the king Stuart monarchs were weak, acted on whims and offended numerous groups Estates General had met in 1614 … not again until 1789 … only called by king Strong personalities … Cardinal Richelieu, Mazarin, Louis XIV

  28. The Stuart Monarchy

  29. James I [r. 1603-1625] Divine Right of Kings

  30. Growing Crisis • James I sought to raise revenue without calling Parliament • James I also offended Puritans • King James Bible • Sports • Archery, Morris Dances, Whitsun-ales, leaping, vaulting, other such harmless recreation … NO bowling!

  31. King James Bible, 1611

  32. Other Missteps by James

  33. Witch Hunts • Persecuted thousands for witchcraft • Personally liked to watch interrogations and tortures of accused witches

  34. Male Affairs • "I, James, am neither a god nor an angel, but a man like any other. Therefore I act like a man and confess ... that I love the Earl of Buckingham more than anyone else,... (his long term lover whom he often called "Wife" in public); I wish to speak in my own behalf and not to have it thought to be a defect, For Jesus Christ did the same, and therefore I cannot be blamed. Christ had his John, and I have my George

  35. Charles I [r. 1625-1649]

  36. The Many Faces of Charles I

  37. Charles I (1625 – 1649) • Charles I, now king, had to resort to other measures to pay for the war • New tariffs, discontinued taxes • Forced loans (required, but repaid) … prison for those who refused

  38. 1624 (while James was still King) England was again at war with Spain • Parliament supported the war, but refused to adequately finance it

  39. The Petition of Rights, 1628 “The Stuart Magna Carta”

  40. Personal Rule • 1629 – Parliament acted to label taxation without the consent of parliament and anything leading to “popery” in religion were acts of treason • Charles dissolved Parliament • Charles made peace with France and Spain to conserve his resources • Fear of catholic sympathies • Charles’ wife was Catholic (French) • Henrietta Maria

  41. Return of Parliament • War with Scotland (prayer book riots) (1637) (1638, vow, petition) (WAR) • To finance the war, the king called Parliament • Led by John Pym and Oliver Cromwell they refused to back the king or finance the war until the king addressed a list of grievances • Charles immediately dissolved Parliament • 1640, great Scottish victory over the English at Newburn … King recalled parliament …

  42. The Long Parliament • Parliament now met for 20 years (hence the name … 1640 – 1660) • House of Commons impeached many nobles on the royal court • Voted that no more than three years between meetings … voted that they could not be dissolved without their own consent • Rebellion in Ireland (1641) • Parliament voted to take control of the army from Charles if they were to finance any more wars

  43. Civil War • January 1642 – Charles invaded parliament with his army • He wanted to arrest John Pym and others but they had escaped • Shocked, Parliament voted to raise its own army … • Die was cast … Civil War • 1642 - 1646

  44. Civil War (1621-1649) Royalists(Cavaliers) Parliamentarians(Roundheads) • House of Lords • N & W England • Aristocracy • Large landowners • Church officials • More rural, less prosperous • House of Commons • S & E England • Puritans • Merchants • Townspeople • More urban , more prosperous

  45. Major Battles and Outcome • Oliver Cromwell took control of Roundheads • New Model Army • Victories over the king at Battle of Marston Moor (1644) • Naseby(Naisby) (1645) • Preston (1648) * Pride’s Purge

  46. The Beheading of Charles I, 1649

  47. Oliver Cromwell [1599-1658]The “Interregnum” Period [1649-1660] • The Commonwealth(1649-1653) • The Protectorate(1654-1660)

  48. The Protectorate(1654-1660) • From 1654-1660 Oliver Cromwell ruled England as a military dictator • Puritan dogma and social values were enforced as laws • Many were executed for the most minor of violations Lord Protector

  49. Irish Conquest • Cromwell personally led invasion and conquest of Ireland … very brutal • The public practice of Catholicism was banned and Catholic priests were murdered when captured. • All Catholic-owned land was confiscated in the Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652 and given to Scottish and English settlers, the Parliament's financial creditors and Parliamentary soldiers. • Under the Commonwealth, Catholic landownership dropped from 60% of the total to just 8%

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