The Industrial Revolution in America 8.6.1 • The Big Idea • The Industrial Revolution transformed the way goods were produced in the United States. • Main Ideas • The invention of new machines in Great Britain led to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. • The development of new machines and processes brought the Industrial Revolution to the United States. • Despite a slow start in manufacturing, the United States made rapid improvements during the War of 1812.
Main Idea 1: The invention of new machines in Great Britain led to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. • Most people at the beginning of the 1700s were farmers, who made most of what they needed by hand. • Skilled workers, such as blacksmiths, carpenters, and shoemakers, made goods by hand in the towns. • People began using machines to make the manufacturing process more efficient. • The Industrial Revolution, a period of rapid growth using machines to make goods, arose in Great Britain in the mid-1700s.
Textile Industry • The first breakthrough in the Industrial Revolution was in how textiles, or cloth goods, were made. • Richard Arkwright,an Englishman,invented a spinning machine in 1769 called the water frame, which replaced hand spinning. • The water frame used flowing water as a source of power. • Could produce dozens of cotton threads at the same time • Lowered the cost of cotton production and increased the speed of textile production • Merchants built textile mills near rivers and streams. • Great Britain soon built the world’s most productive textile manufacturing industry.
Main Idea 2:The development of new machines and processes brought the Industrial Revolution to the United States. • Samuel Slater brought the secret of textile mill manufacturing from Great Britain to the United States. • The textile industry arose in the Northeast, introducing the Industrial Revolution to the United States.
Manufacturing Breakthroughs • U.S. factories needed better technology, or tools, to manufacture muskets. • Inventor Eli Whitney developed musket factories using water-powered machinery. • Whitney introduced the idea of interchangeable parts, or parts of a machine that are identical, to make musket manufacturing easier. • Interchangeable parts sped up the process of mass production.
Main Idea 3:Despite a slow start in manufacturing, the United States made rapid improvements during the War of 1812. • Lower British prices on manufactured goods made it difficult for American manufacturing to grow. • American manufacturing was limited to cotton goods, flour milling, weapons, and iron products. • The War of 1812 cut off trade with Great Britain, allowing manufacturing in the United States to prosper and expand. • Americans realized that the United States had been relying too heavily on foreign goods.
Changes in Working Life 8.6.1 • The Big Idea • The introduction of factories changed working life for many Americans. • Main Ideas • The spread of mills in the Northeast changed workers’ lives. • The Lowell system revolutionized the textile industry in the Northeast. • Workers organized to reform working conditions.
Main Idea 1:The spread of mills in the Northeast changed workers’ lives. • Factory jobs usually involved simple, repetitive tasks done for low pay. • Could not find workers because of the simple work and the fact that other jobs were available • The mill industry filled jobs by hiring whole families, and paying children low wages. • Built housing for workers and provided a company store • Samuel Slater’s strategy of hiring families and dividing factory work into simple tasks was called the Rhode Island system.
Main Idea 2:The Lowell System revolutionized the textile industry in the Northeast. • Francis Cabot Lowell created a new system of mill manufacturing in 1814, called the Lowell system. • The Lowell system involved • Employing young, unmarried women, who were housed in boardinghouses • Providing clean factories and free-time activities for its employees • Having mills that included both spinning thread and weaving in the same plant
Main Idea 3: Workers organized to reform working conditions. • Deteriorating Working Conditions • Employees worked 12-to-14 hour days in unhealthy conditions. • Craftsmen’s wages dropped in competition against cheap manufactured goods. • Wages of factory workers dropped as they competed for jobs. • Trade Unions Formed • Craftsmen formed trade unions to gain higher wages and better working conditions. • Factory workers also formed trade unions. • Labor unions staged protests called strikes, refusing to work until employers met their demands.
Labor Reform Efforts • Millworker Sarah G. Bagley helped lead the union movement in Massachusetts. • Bagley’s union campaigned to reduce the 12-to 14-hour workday to a 10-hour workday. • Union workers won some victories, as several states passed 10-hour workday laws. • In other states the workday remained long and child labor prevailed.
The Transportation Revolution 8.6.1 • The Big Idea • New forms of transportation improved business, travel, and communications in the United States. • Main Ideas • The Transportation Revolution affected trade and daily life. • The steamboat was one of the first developments of the Transportation Revolution. • Railroads were a vital part of the Transportation Revolution. • The Transportation Revolution brought many changes to American life and industry.
Main Idea 1: The Transportation Revolution affected trade and daily life. • The 1800s gave rise to Transportation Revolution: period of rapid growth in new means of transportation • Transportation Revolution created boom in business by reducing shipping costs and time • Two new forms of transportation were steamboat and steam-powered trains • Goods, people, and information were able to travel rapidly and efficiently across the United States.
Main Idea 2:The steamboat was one of the first developments of the Transportation Revolution. • Robert Fulton invented the steamboat, testing the Clermont in 1807. • Steamboats increased trade by moving goods more quickly and more cheaply. • More than 500 steamboats were in use by 1840. • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824): The Supreme Court reinforced the federal government’s authority to regulate trade between states. • Gibbons argued that a federal license meant he could use New York waterways without another license. • The Supreme Court agreed with Gibbons.
Main Idea 3:Railroads were a vital part of the Transportation Revolution. • Steam-powered trains had been developed in Great Britain, but it took 30 years for the idea to catch on in the United States. • Peter Cooper raced his Tom Thumb locomotive against a horse in 1830, proving its power and speed despite losing because of a breakdown near the end of the race. • About 30,000 miles of railroads linked American cities by 1860. • The U.S. economy surged as railroads moved goods cheaply to distant markets.
Main Idea 4:The Transportation Revolution brought many changes to American life and industry. • People in all areas of the nation had access to products made and grown far away. • Railroads contributed to the expansion of the nation’s borders. • Cities and towns grew up along railroad tracks.
Impact of Railroads • Coal replaced wood as a source of fuel as trains grew bigger. • Railroads helped create the coal industry. • Coal, shipped cheaply on trains, became the main fuel in homes and in the emerging steel industry. • Railroads helped the lumber industry grow, leading to large-scale deforestation. • Railroads caused cities to grow, including Chicago, which became a transportation hub.
More Technological Advances 8.6.1 • The Big Idea • Advances in technology led to new inventions that continued to change daily life and work. • Main Ideas • The telegraph made swift communication possible from coast to coast. • With the shift to steam power, businesses built new factories closer to cities and transportation centers. • Improved farm equipment and other labor-saving devices made life easier for many Americans. • New inventions changed lives in American homes.
Main Idea 1:The telegraph made swift communication possible from coast to coast. • In 1832, Samuel F. B. Morse perfected the telegraph—a device that could send information over wires. • The device did not catch on until the 1844 Democratic National Convention, when the nomination was telegraphed to Washington. • A Morse associate created Morse code to communicate messages over the wires. • Morse code turned pulses of electric current into long and short clicks. • Clicks, also called dots and dashes, were arranged in patterns representing letters of the alphabet. • The telegraph grew with the railroad; the first transcontinental railroad line was completed in 1861.
Main Idea 2: With the shift to steam power, businesses built new factories closer to cities and transportation centers. • The shift from water power to steam power allowed owners to build factories anywhere. • Factories were shifted closer to cities and transportation centers. • Cities became centers of industrial growth.
Main Idea 3:Improved farm equipment and other labor-saving devices made life easier for many Americans. • John Deere designed a steel plow in 1837 that replaced the less efficient iron plow. • Cyrus McCormick developed a mechanical reaper in 1831, which quickly and efficiently harvested wheat. • McCormick used a new method to encourage sales, advertising. • He also allowed people to buy on credit and provided repairs and spare parts for his machines. • These inventions allowed farmers to plant and harvest huge crop fields, helping the country prosper.
Main Idea 4:New inventions changed lives in American homes. • The sewing machine, invented by Elias Howe and improved by Isaac Singer, made home sewing easier. • Ice boxes and iron cookstoves improved household storage and preparation of food. • Mass-produced goods, such as clocks, matches, and safety pins, added convenience to households.
Growth of the Cotton Industry 8.7.1 8.7.2 • The Big Idea • The invention of the cotton gin made the South a one-crop economy and increased the need for slave labor. • Main Ideas • The invention of the cotton gin revived the economy of the South. • The cotton gin created a cotton boom in which farmers grew little else. • Some people encouraged southerners to focus on other crops and industries.
Main Idea 1: The invention of the cotton gin revived the economy of the South. • Prices for major southern crops—tobacco, rice, and indigo—fell after the American Revolution. • Cotton was not profitable, because of the difficulty of removing seeds. • Demand for American cotton grew rapidly with the rise of British textile mills. • Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin, a machine to remove seeds from cotton, in 1793. • Planters—large-scale farmers—soon adopted the cotton gin and were able to process tons of cotton much faster than hand processing. • A healthy cotton crop could now guarantee financial success because of high demand.
Main Idea 2: The cotton gin created a cotton boom in which farmers grew little else. • Cotton gin made cotton so profitable that southern farmers abandoned other crops • Removal of Native Americans opened up more land • Development of new types of cotton helped spread production throughout South, as far west as Texas • United States produced more than half the cotton grown in the world by 1840 • Economic boom attracted new settlers, built up wealth among white southerners, and helped keep slavery established in the South.
Cotton Belt Cotton had many advantages as cash crop: inexpensive to market and easy to store and transport. Cotton had major disadvantage—used up nutrients in soil—so farmers began crop rotation. Farmers developed stronger types of cotton through crossbreeding, which expanded the cotton industry. Cotton industry was labor intensive; need for more slaves caused increase in internal slave trade. Instead of paying free workers, planters used enslaved Africans.
Cotton Trade • Southern cotton was used to make cloth in England and the North. • Great Britain became the South’s most valued foreign trading partner. • Increased trade led to the growth of port cities, including Charleston, Savannah, and New Orleans. • Crop brokers, called factors, managed the cotton trade.
Main Idea 3: Some people encouraged southerners to focus on other crops and industries. • Agriculture • Corn—primary food crop • Other food crops—rice, sweet potatoes, wheat, and sugarcane • Tobacco production increased when a slave developed an improved drying process. • Hemp and flax also became cash crops. • As long asagriculture profits remained high, investors preferred to invest in land. • Industry • Factories in South built to serve farmers’ needs • Nation’s first steam-powered sawmill built in Louisiana in 1803 • Entrepreneurs began investing in cotton mills by 1840s • Tredegar Iron Works: one of nation’s most productive iron works • Industry remained a small part of southern economy
Immigrants and Urban Challenges 8.6.1 8.6.3 • The Big Idea • The population of the United States grew rapidly in the early 1800s with the arrival of millions of immigrants. • Main Ideas • Millions of immigrants, mostly German and Irish, arrived in the United States despite anti-immigrant movements. • Industrialization led to the growth of cities. • American cities experienced urban problems due to rapid growth.
Main Idea 1: Millions of immigrants, mostly German and Irish, arrived in the United States despite anti-immigrant movements. • Large numbers of immigrants crossed the Atlantic in the mid-1800s to begin new lives in the United States. • More than 4 million came between 1840 and 1860, mostly from Europe. • More than 3 million of them were from Ireland and Germany.
Push-Pull Factors of Immigration • Push Factors • Starvation • Poverty • Lack of political freedom • Pull Factors • Jobs • Greater freedom and equality • Abundant land
Immigrants from Ireland and Germany • Irish Immigrants • Fled Ireland because of potato famine in 1840s • Most were very poor. • Settled in cities in Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania • Men worked at unskilled jobs or by building canals and railroads. • Women worked as domestic servants for wealthy families. • German Immigrants • Some educated Germans fled for political reasons. • Most were working class and came for economic reasons. • Many became farmers and lived in rural areas. • In cities they had to take low-paying jobs, such as tailors, seamstresses, bricklayers, servants, clerks, and bakers.
Anti-Immigration Movements • Many native-born Americans feared losing jobs to immigrants, who might work for lower wages. • Most Americans were Protestants before the new immigration. • Conflict between Protestants and newly arrived Catholic immigrants • Americans who opposed immigration were called nativists. • Nativists founded a political organization called the Know-Nothing Party in 1849 to make it difficult for immigrants to become citizens or hold public office. • Wanted to keep Catholics and immigrants out of public office • Wanted immigrants to live in United States for 21 years before becoming citizens
Main Idea 2:Industrialization led to the growth of cities. • Industrial Revolution led to creation of new jobs in cities • Drew rural Americans and immigrants from many nations • Transportation Revolution helped to connect cities and make movement easier • Rise of industry and growth of cities led to creation of new middle class • Merchants, manufacturers, professionals, and master craftspeople • New economic level between wealthy and poor • People found entertainment and enriched cultural life in cities. • Cities were compact and crowded during this time.
Main Idea 3:American cities experienced urban problems due to rapid growth. Many city dwellers, particularly immigrants, lived in tenements: poorly designed apartment buildings that housed large numbers of people. Public services were poor—no clean water, public health regulations, or healthy way to get rid of garbage. Cities became centers of criminal activity, and most had no organized police force. Fire was a constant and serious danger in crowded cities.
American Arts 8.6.7 • The Big Idea • New movements in art and literature influenced many Americans in the early 1800s. • Main Ideas • Transcendentalists and utopian communities withdrew from American society. • American Romantic painters and writers made important contributions to art and literature.
Main Idea 1: Transcendentalists and utopian communities withdrew from American society. • Transcendentalism was the belief that people could transcend, or rise above, material things. • Important transcendentalists included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller,and Henry David Thoreau. • Some formed a community at Brook Farm, Massachusetts, in the 1840s. • It was one of many experiments in utopian communities,places where people tried to form a perfect society. • In reality, most members did not work together well and the communities did not last long.
Main Idea 2:American Romantic painters and writers made important contributions to art and literature. • Ideas about simple life and nature inspired painters and writers. • Some joined the Romantic movement that had begun in Europe. • Romanticism involved an interest in nature, emphasis on individual expression, and rejection of many established rules. • Painters and writers felt that each person brings a unique view to the world. • They believed in using emotion to guide their creativity.
Art of the Romantic Movement • Some Romantic artists, like Thomas Cole, painted the American landscape. • Their works celebrated the beauty and wonder of nature in the United States. • Their images contrasted with the huge cities and corruption of nature that many Americans saw as typical of Europe.
American Romantic Writers Many women writers, including Ann Sophia Stephens, wrote historical fiction that was popular in the mid-1800s. Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote The Scarlet Letter, one of the great classics of Romantic literature. Herman Melville wrote Moby Dick, a novel about the sea that many people believe is the finest American novel ever written. American Romantic authors also wrote poetry, including Edgar Allen Poe, who became famous for “The Raven.” Other gifted poets included Emily Dickinson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow,and Walt Whitman.