A HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BY: LORENZO GUTIERREZ
VOCABULARY • “Laissez-Faire”- the doctrine that government shouldn't’t interfere in commercial affairs. • Capitalism- an economic and political system. • Frugal- sparing or economical with regard to money or food. • Industrialization- the development of industry on an extensive scale.
VOCABULARY (CONTINUED) • Manufacturing- the act of making something from raw materials. • Mechanization- the condition of having a highly technical implementation. • Socialism- a political and economic theory of social organization. • Strike- refuse to work as a form of organized protest.
VOCABULARY (CONTINUED) • Urbanization- the process of people increasing moving into towns. • Yield- to produce or provide.
IMPORTANT FACT #001 • Before the 19th century, everything was done by hand (artisans), but quantities were small. • During the 19th century, everything was done by machines (in factories) and larger quantities were produced. BECAME
IMPORTANT FACT #002 • Agriculture was advancing. • Techniques such as crop rotation and using manure as fertilizer were being used. • The plough was improved. A plough.
IMPORTANT FACT #003 (THE CONTEXT) • Agriculture was advancing (crop rotation, manure as fertilizer, improved plough, etc.) • Death rates were decreasing because of improved nutrition and advancing public health. • Transportation included ships brought raw materials from colonies to factories and then shipped goods to consume all over Europe. • Cotton was in such high demand that England switched from producing wool to cotton.
IMPORTANT FACT #004 (THE RESULTS) • More food, textiles, and other products were produced than before, but by fewer workers. • Many farm hands and artisans were put out of work. • These people would later find work in factories. • The population growth = increased demand of goods.
IMPORTANT FACT #005 (CHANGES IN BRITAIN’S ECONOMY) • Change #1- The Steam Engine • Inventor- James Watt • The idea- Coal + Water = Steam Motion. • Power- was stronger & steadier than water power, wind power, and animal or human power. • Used to run spinning machines in textile, factories to bring locomotives, etc. The Steam Engine.
IMPORTANT FACT #006(CHANGES IN BRITAIN’S ECONOMY) • Change #2- Coal • Because of the steam engine, production of coal increased through coal mining. • Industrial revolution first occurred in Great Britain, where there were rich coal deposits. • Coal was used to run steam engines, heat houses, and melt iron. Coal miners.
IMPORTANT FACT #007(CHANGES IN BRITAIN’S ECONOMY) • Change #3- Iron Processing • This was expensive. • Birth of the STEEL INDUSTRY. A product of the STEEL INDUSTRY.
IMPORTANT FACT #008(CHANGES IN BRITAIN’S ECONOMY) • Change #4- Railways • George Stephenson invented The Locomotive in 1825. • Trains later replaced barges (boats), since trains were much faster, stronger, and cheaper. The Locomotive, invented in 1825 by George Stephenson.
IMPORTANT FACT #009(PRODUCTION: BEFORE AND AFTER THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION) CHANGES IN PRODUCTION Places of Production Labor Tools Used Skills Needed Speed of Production Quantity Produced Cost of Production Market BY HAND Cottages Artisans Manual Tools Specialized Slow Small High Local BY MACHINE Factory Factory Workers Machines Unspecialized Fast Large Low Local and Foreign
IMPORTANT FACT #010(CHANGES IN BRITAIN’S SCOIETY) • Change #1- Urbanization • Rural Exodus. • No infrastructure. • Epidemics. • Between working-class and Bourgeois neighborhoods.
IMPORTANT FACT #011(CHANGES IN BRITAIN’S SCOIETY) • Change #2- Social Classes • A new social hierarchy emerged. 1. The Industrial Bourgeoisie. -dominated society, lived comfortably, valued education, hard work, and frugality. -they did not do manual work. -only group that benefitted from the economic growth. The Industrial Bourgeoisie.
IMPORTANT FACT #012(CHANGES IN BRITAIN’S SOCIETY) • The Petty Bourgeoisie - lawyers, journalists, doctors, engineers, etc. The Petty Bourgeoisie.
IMPORTANT FACT #013(CHANGES IN BRITAIN’S FACTORY) 3. The Working Class -they worked 15-16 hours a day, 6 days a week (Sunday was the Sabbath). -they could be fired easily. -their jobs were risky, difficult and dangerous (mining). -they received poor wages. Wives and children often worked too, because money was needed. -life expectancy was 30 years old. -their living conditions were miserable. The Working Class.
IMPORTANT FACT #014(THE MAJOR EFFECTS) • Families- wealth, leisure time, better educated. • Countries- increased power, wealth, and living standard.
IMPORTANT FACT #015(THE MAJOR EFFECTS) • Cities overcrowded- pollution, rapid population growth.