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On Economics and the User-Scheduler Relationship in HPC and Grid Systems

On Economics and the User-Scheduler Relationship in HPC and Grid Systems

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On Economics and the User-Scheduler Relationship in HPC and Grid Systems

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  1. Cynthia Bailey Lee Advisor: Allan E. Snavely Department of Computer Science and Engineering San Diego Supercomputer Center University of California, San Diego November 14, 2007 On Economics and the User-Scheduler Relationship in HPC and Grid Systems

  2. Introduction Runtime InaccuracyUtility Functions Utility Model Scheduler Introduction • The job submission routine: • Edit job script, including resources needed and amount of time requested • Submit job—typically, many questions remain: • Did I request enough time? • How long will the job wait in the queue? • Eventually, job runs—more questions: • I submitted to a ‘high-priority’ queue—was my wait time actually shorter than if I hadn’t? • By how much? • Was it worth it? • Is this a satisfying relationship for either party?

  3. Introduction Runtime InaccuracyUtility Functions Utility Model Scheduler Contributions of This Work • Falsified “The Padding Hypothesis” as the sole explanation for users’ inaccurate runtime requests • Quantified users’ valuation of turnaround by collecting actual users’ utility curves • Proposed a model forsynthetically generating utility functions that draws on patterns seen in the actual user curves • A genetic algorithm-based scheduler that uses aggregate utility as an explicit objective function

  4. IntroductionRuntime InaccuracyUtility Functions Utility Model Scheduler “The Padding Hypothesis” The inaccuracy of users’ requested runtimes, relative to the actual runtime of jobs, is explained by users explicitly “padding” otherwise accurate runtime estimates in order to avoid the possibility of being killed by the scheduler. SDSC users were asked to provide a “no-kill”/no-pressure estimate, with prizes for being accurate 72 Users are able to self-identify as more or less accurate % Decrease

  5. IntroductionRuntime InaccuracyUtility FunctionsUtility Model Scheduler What is a Utility Function? u(t)‏ time 8 am 12–1pm 5 pm 8 am 9 am Other factors: coordinate with other grid sites or sensors, paper deadlines, weather and hurricane prediction, …

  6. IntroductionRuntime InaccuracyUtility FunctionsUtility Model Scheduler Real Users' Functions • Randomly-selected users of SDSC systems provided these data points for jobs they were submitting • Utility is in terms of the SDSC charge unit (“SU”)‏

  7. IntroductionRuntime InaccuracyUtility FunctionsUtility Model Scheduler More Real Users' Functions

  8. IntroductionRuntime InaccuracyUtility FunctionsUtility Model Scheduler Model for Generating Synthetic Utility Functions • Expected Linear • Expected Exponential • Step • “Expected” refers to the fact that each point is chosen randomly (i.e. Most won't follow the pattern as cleanly as shown here)‏

  9. IntroductionRuntime Inaccuracy Utility FunctionsUtility Model Scheduler J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 + = J1 J1 J2 J2 J3 J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 Genetic Algorithm Scheduler • Individuals: • permutations of the job queue ordering • Mutation: • swap two randomly-selected jobs • Reproduction: • zipper-like merging of parents (skip duplicates)‏ • Fitness:global utility of resulting schedule (approx.)‏

  10. IntroductionRuntime Inaccuracy Utility FunctionsUtility Model Scheduler GA scheduler and Inaccurate Runtimes Schedulers compared: • CONS = Conservative Backfilling • EASY = Aggressive Backfilling • PRIO = Priority FIFO (typical supercomputer priority scheduler)‏ • GA = genetic algorithm Workload is SDSC-BLUE from the Parallel Workloads Archive (Dror Feitelson)‏ Load modified by scaling inter-arrival times Regular Load Heavy Load

  11. Related WorkVery abbreviated—please see my publications for much more complete references • Runtime request inaccuracy: Mu’alem and Feitelson 2001, Tsafrir 2005, Cirne and Berman 2001, Ward, Mahood and West 2002, (workaround via queue prediction) Brevik, Nurmi,Wolski 2006, (mitigate via grace period) Chiang, Arpaci-Dusseau and Vernon 2002 • Utility functions: Chun and Culler 2004, Irwin, Grit and Chase 2004, Chen and Muhlethaler 1996 • Market approach to scheduling: Wolski, Plank, Brevik and Bryan 2001, Stoica, Abdel-Wahab and Pothen 1995, Buyya, “Spawn” system: Waldburger, Hogg et al. 1992, “Tycoon” system: Lai et al. 2004, Popovici and Wilkes @ SC05, Singh, Kesselman, Deelman 2007, many, many more… • Genetic algorithm in parallel job scheduling: Franke 2006 (many, many more in other scheduling domains)

  12. For more information… • Inaccurate runtime requests survey: Lee, C., Y. Schwartzman, J. Hardy, A. Snavely. “Are user runtime estimates inherently inaccurate?” Workshop on Job Scheduling Strategies for Parallel Processing, with SIGMETRICS, June 2004. • Survey collecting SDSC users' utility curves: Lee, C. and A. Snavely. "On the User-Scheduler Dialogue: Studies of User-Provided Runtime Estimates and Utility Functions." International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, vol. 20, 2006. • Genetic algorithm scheduler and model for generating synthetic utility curves: Lee, C. and A. Snavely. “Precise and Realistic Utility Functions for User-Centric Performance Analysis of Schedulers.” HPDC-16, June 2007. • Contact: Cynthia Lee, CL@SDSC.EDU