Daily TAKS Connection: Energy Flow Through Trophic Levels BIO (9) The student knows metabolic processes and energy transfers that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to: (D) Analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels and between organisms and the physical environment.
Construct a folded book foldable titled “Energy Flow Through Food Webs” Materials: Foldable handout (2 pages) Scissors Pen Colored pencils/crayons Instructions: Hamburger fold the foldable handouts Cut 2 cm slits from the edges of the fold of the handout that has page 2 (as marked) Cut along the fold line of the other sheet of paper beginning and ending about 2 cm from each end (as marked). Burrito fold and insert paper from step 2 into the hole and open, forming a book. Day 1
Day 2: Record the following notes on pages 1 and 2 of your book. Notes relate to the model shown. • Sunlight provides the energy for a food web • Arrows indicate direction of energy flow • Model of trophic levels is always WIDE at the bottom and NARROW at the top • Greatest amount of energy is at the bottom of the pyramid
Day 2 continued….. Student Instructions: Correctly label the diagram on page 1 with the terms in the box.
Question 1 Energy used by producers in a rainforest food web is provided by — a. sunlight b. photosynthesis c. oxygen d. carbon dioxide
Question 2 The diagram shown is intended to show relationships in an ecosystem. What do the arrows represent? a. The direction of population migration b. Differences in dietary habits c. Progressively smaller organisms d. The direction of energy flow
Question 3 A food pyramid represents the relative amount of energy in trophic levels. Which of the following correctly shows a food pyramid?
1 kcal 10 kcal 100 kcal Day 3: Record the following notes on pages 3 and 4 of your book. Notes relate to the model shown. • ~10% of energy is transferred to next level of food pyramid • Move decimal one place to the left when determining energy remaining at higher levels • Greatest amount of energy is found at the bottom of the pyramid • ~90% of energy is given off as heat from one level to the next 1000 kcal 1000 kcal
Day 3 continued… Student Instructions: Following the rule “move the decimal place one to the left when determining energy transfer through the trophic levels”, complete both diagrams provided on page 3 of your foldable.
Question 4 How many kcal of energy are transferred to the primary consumer level? • 3 kcal • 30 kcal • 300 kcal • 3000 kcal 3000 kcal
Question 5 How many kcal of energy are transferred to the secondary consumer level? • 3 kcal • 30 kcal • 300 kcal • 3000 kcal 3000 kcal
Question 6 How many kcal of energy are transferred to the tertiary consumer level? • 3 kcal • 30 kcal • 300 kcal • 3000 kcal 3000 kcal
Question 7 About 90% of the energy at one trophic level is not passed to the next level. What usually happens to the energy that is not passed to the next trophic level or used to carry out life processes? a. It is given off as heat. b. It is stored as vitamins. c. It is used in reproduction. d. It is used in protein synthesis
Question 8 The diagram represents different levels of a marine food pyramid. Between which two levels is the least amount of energy transferred? a. R and Q b. S and R c. T and S d. U and T
Day 4: Record the following notes on pages 5 and 6 of your book. Notes relate to the model shown. • Pesticides (kill insects) and herbicides (kill plants) can adversely effect an ecosystem • every organism at a higher trophic level is affected—no nutrients transferred • Role of fungi and bacteria in ecosystem: Decomposers—live on dead organisms in the environment
Day 4 continued… Student Instructions: • On the diagram on page 5, circle all the organisms affected if the grasshopper population is destroyed by pesticides. • Under the diagram on page 5, list all the organisms affected if the application of an herbicide destroys all the grass.
Question 9 In this food web, the bacteria probably function as — a. producers b. herbivores c. decomposers d. carnivores
Question 10 In this food web, the grasses function as — a. producers b. herbivores c. decomposers d. carnivores
Question 11 In this food web, the quail function as — a. producers b. herbivores c. decomposers d. carnivores
Question 12 The diagram shows several phases of the nitrogen cycle. Which of the following describes the most likely effect of removing some plants from the area by using chemical herbicides? a. The rate of erosion of rocks on the ground would be slowed. b. The flow of necessary nutrients would be disrupted. c. The ability of plants to complete photosynthesis would be increased. d. The infiltration of water into the ground would be halted.