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Emerging Infectious Diseases in Wildlife

Emerging Infectious Diseases in Wildlife. Examples : Colony collapse disorder in honeybees Mycoplasmosis in birds Chytridiomycosis in amphibians White-Nose S yndrome in bats Morbilliviruses in seals.

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Emerging Infectious Diseases in Wildlife

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  1. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Wildlife Examples: Colony collapse disorder in honeybees Mycoplasmosis in birds Chytridiomycosis in amphibians White-Nose Syndrome in bats Morbilliviruses in seals Emerging infections can lead to population extirpations or even species extinctions

  2. Why are wildlife diseases increasing? • Human population growth and encroachment on wildlife habitat • “Spill-over” from domestic animals to wildlife populations • Translocations for conservation, agriculture, hunting • Introduction of new disease-causing pathogens • Global warming altering host/parasite ranges • Increasing stressors (toxic chemicals, pollutants) increase individual susceptibility

  3. One Health Human EIDs increased significantly since 1940s > 60% of human EIDs are zoonotic; 70% of zoonoses originate in wildlife Few diseases affect exclusively any one group

  4. The Northeast: a “hotspot” for emerging infectious diseases Source: Jones et al 2008. Nature 451:990-993

  5. We Need a Regional System For Wildlife Disease Surveillance and Diagnostics In the Northeast

  6. Successful Model of Regional Efforts Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS) 1957 to investigate white-tailed deer deaths Work closely with SE Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies • State – federal cooperative structure • Funded by wildlife agencies and the U.S. Dept of Interior to conduct regional wildlife research and service projects • Supported by USDA APHIS for consultation and surveillance where disease interact among wildlife, domestic livestock, poultry

  7. SCWDS • Submission structure • Diagnostic service is a direct result of funding by member state and federal agencies and is available only through their consent • Submissions must be approved by state/federal agencies • Training and Informational Services • Training workshops (with APHIS) for wildlife biologists and veterinary • medical officers - prepare them to respond to emerging disease • Play an advisory role in regional wildlife health issues

  8. ?!! If they can do it in the Southeast…..

  9. Northeast Wildlife Disease Cooperative Diagnostic Laboratories: New Hampshire Diagnostic Services, University of New Hampshire Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, University of Connecticut Animal Health Diagnostic Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University Expertise: Fresh and saltwater fishes Lobsters and other crustaceans Marine and terrestrial mammals Birds of all types Amphibians and reptiles Small carnivores Cervids Bivalves, cephalopods

  10. 3 - Year Strategy Year 1 (1) Provide training to biologists Field investigations of wildlife mortality events: Part 1. Diseases, Procedures, Precautions Part 2. Necropsy and Sample Procurement (2) Identify core group of advisors (state wildlife biologists, USDA, USGS)

  11. 3 - Year Strategy (3) Establish a coordinated system: Centralized system for communications Centralized database Regional Disease list serv Create one-stop-shop website Case submission coordination Standardized reporting

  12. 3 - Year Strategy • Year 2 & 3 • (1) Initiate limited diagnostic service using membership dues from states • (2) Beta test diagnostics system (coordination, database, reporting) • (3) Increase number of submissions (and membership dues) • (4) Ramp up the disease research component • (5) Develop proposals for federal funding on specific research projects

  13. Case 1: Common Eider Mortality Events Cape Cod Bay, 2006 - 2010 Fall and early Spring, ~400 – 4,000 birds Multi-agency investigation (USDA, FWS, NWHC, NPS, Mass Audubon)

  14. Possible cause: a novel virus? • RNA virus isolated from birds (NWHC) • Pathogenicity trials in eider ducklings, Summer 2010 • Novel orthomyxovirus, genus Quarjavirus • “Wellfleet Bay Virus” • Spread by ticks at breeding colonies? Issues: Getting someone in the field to respond No clear chain of command Delayed reports and results Results not disseminated widely

  15. Case 2: Newcastle in Cormorants In New England (Fall 2010) ?? (reporting) USDA USGS ? Carcasses, Samples Rehabbers, SEANET

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