http://webct.uleth.ca/“my webCT” login Bible Outline Chronology
Online Reading • Judaism 101 by T. Rich • www.jewfaq.org • www.jewfaq.org • Go to table of contents, • In “Words” section, read “Torah”. • All of “Life Cycle” section.
Sacred Foundations • Patriarchs • Who were they? • Exodus • How is this central to Jewish belief? • Exile / Restoration • How is this central to Jewish belief?
Second temple period • 538 to 70 CE • Biblical Texts • Emphasis on texts grew.
DIASPORA. 2nd Temple Period Ends 70 CE: Failure of rebellion against Rome. HOW TO BE JEWISH WITHOUT JUDAH AND THE TEMPLE? Hillel and Shammai looked for answers
Post-70 CE • Judaism reforms under leaders authorized by Rome • “Rabbis”: scholars of sacred text, preserve and interpret tradition, innovate. • Older emphasis on texts grows as the basis of Jewish life.
“Rabbinic” Judaism The kind of Judaism formulated by the Rabbis of the first several centuries of the Common era. Emphasis on sacred text and tradition.
Rabbinic Judaism • Centres on the development of ritual, tradition, and ethics from the Rabbinic discussions about the God’s revelation to Moses.
Rabbinic Judaism is“Judaism of the 2 Torahs” • The inherited Torah-scrolls that open the Bible is the Written Torah • The recorded teaching and discussions of the ancient Rabbis is the Oral Torah.
Persistence of Rabbinic Judaism Rabbinic Judaism developed over centuries: by the 600’s the main texts of the Oral Torah were complete: the Talmud. Rabbinic Judaism was the predominant form of Judaism until the 1800’s when it underwent serious challenges from modernity.
Main Jewish denominations now • Orthodox (closest to Rabbinic Judaism) • Hasidic Judaism, part of Orthodox “Ultra-Orthodox” • Reform • Conservative • Reconstructionist • Zionist
N. Am. 6 mill Israel 2.9 mill S. Am. 1.2 mill Russia 0.7 mill Africa 0.3 mill Oceania 0.9 mill ~~~~~~~~~ Canada 330,000 Calgary ca. 6000 Edmonton ca. 5000 Jewish Distribution, 1997
Jewish Beliefs • One God: • YHWH hwhy • Name is NOT to be pronounced. • “Adonai” “LORD” is pronounced when YHWH is encountered in biblical texts. • “HaShem” “The Name” is often found in prayerbooks • “G-d” is sometimes written.
Shema: Prayerwww.jewfaq.org/prayer/shema.htm • Begins: • Hear, Oh Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One… • Most important prayer in Judaism. Quotes from the Bible.
Principles of Faith • Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon (1135-1204) • RAMBAM • Moses Maimonides • Determined 13 principles to be the core beliefs of Judaism.
13 Principles: http://jewfaq.org/beliefs.htm 1 God exists • God is one and unique • God is incorporeal • God is eternal • Prayer is to be directed only to God
13 Principles:http://jewfaq.org/beliefs.htm • The words of the prophets are true • Moses's prophecies are true, Moses was the greatest prophet • The Written Torah (first 5 biblical books) and Oral Torah (Talmud and other writings) were given to Moses. • There will be no other Torah
13 Principles: http://jewfaq.org/beliefs.htm • God knows people’s thoughts and deeds • God will reward the good & punish the wicked • Messiah will eventually come • The dead will be resurrected.
Jewish Bible = Tanakh • Torah “Instruction” • Nevi’im “Prophets” • Kethuvim “Writings” • http://www.jewfaq.org/torah.htm
Torah • 5 Books of Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers Deuteronomy. • “Pentateuch” • Same in all Bibles, Jewish, Christian
Torah scroll • 5 books written on a single scroll • Ritual centre of Synagogue life.
Jewish Bibles Different Versions in very early period “Masoretic Text” MT (standard since 2nd century CE) Hebrew and a little Aramaic
Prophets • Former P. History Books • Latter P. Books of Prophecy • Often poetic • Attributed to named individuals
Writings: Everything else • Wisdom Literature • Poetry / songs of Praise • More history books
Jewish Tradition • Oral Torah describes “Halakhah” (to Walk), Jewish “Law” or the proper way of life as understood by the great Rabbis. • Civil, Family morals • Ritual and other religious traditions.
Halakhah • Discussed at great length in Oral Torah. • Oral Torah: huge collection of books: • MISHNAH • TALMUD • Continuous tradition of talking about tradition…
What does Halakhah regulate? • What happens you are born to when you die • What you do when wake up to when you go to sleep • Weekly • Annual