Topic #5 ~ The Cold War • Origins of the Cold War ~ Ideological Differences, mutual suspicion and fear, wartime allies to enemies • Nature of the Cold War • Ideological Opposition, Superpowers spheres of influence, alliances and diplomacy in the Cold War • Development and impact of the Cold War • Global spread from its European origin, Cold War policies of containment, brinkmanship, peaceful coexistence, détente, role of significant leaders, arms race, proliferation, and limitation, social structure and economic impact • End of the Cold War • Break up of the Soviet Union, breakdown of Soviet control over Central and E. Europe • Material you SHOULD ANSWER: Wartime Conferences: Yalta and Potsdam; US policies and developments in Europe: Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, NATO, Soviet policies – Sovietization of E. Europe, and Central Europe, COMECON & Warsaw Pact; Germany ~ Berlin, Korea, Afghanistan, Cuba, Vietnam, Castro, Gorbachev, Kennedy, Mao, Reagan, Stalin, Truman • Material you SHOULD STAY away from: Sino Soviet Relations, US Chinese Relations, Congo
Cold War Long Term Overview • 1941 – 45: Co-operation in WWII ~ USA & USSR work together to defeat Germany • 1946 – 53: The First Cold War ~ disagreements between USA & USSR over Germany & E. Europe and the developing nuclear arms race lead to growing tensions • 1954 – 68: Fluctuating Relations: Relations between the two superpowers go through a period of antagonism and retreat • 1969 – 79: Détente: Period in which the USA & USSR reach several agreements in an effort to avoid a war • 1979 – 85: Second Cold War: Relations decline again over developments in the Developing World and nuclear weapons although a stalemate is reached • 1985 – 91 Final Stages of the Cold War: A New period of co-operation, ending with the break – up of the Soviet Union
The First Cold War • Different origins / start & ideology that contributed to the Cold War
What is a Cold War??? • Term used to describe the tension between the USA & USSR between 1945 & & 1991. Term was popularized by US journalist Walter Lippmann in 1946-1947 • 50 year struggle between two rival states – US vs. USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) and their allies: West vs. East…2 remaining superpowers after WWII • The two main protagonist never actually fought each other directly (did drive economic & foreign policy) • Contest developed between the two (not always scene as a contest between equals)
Origins of the Cold War • Coexistence with other political & social system was impossible • Intense Arms Race • Ally themselves with regimes and movements that went along with their stated political ideology and beliefs • Intense Propaganda ~ West depict USSR as a totalitarian equivalent of Nazi Germany while USSR painted capitalism as warmongering system
Features / Reasons of Cold War Russian Menace ~ Russian expansionism & Soviet communism, which west struggled to contain US Imperialism ~ US spreading capitalism around the world and willing to use military force to achieve objectives West – West Conflict Theory ~ US used Soviet Union as a smokescreen to place blame for problems and US need to “help” and develop W. Europe, Japan, & Asia to prevent these areas to falling under the ‘evil empire’
Ideals of Capitalism & Communism • Capitalism • Business privately owned & run by individuals, families or companies • Not restricted by state • Free competition • Wealth created by companies & wealthy individuals will create new jobs & trickle down to benefit the poorer sections of society • Communism • Classless society • Equal chances & opportunity • Most important parts of economy should be controlled by state or local councils
The Rival Camps ~ Political & Military Alliances NATO ~ North Atlantic Treaty Organization – Military alliance organized by the West in response to the perceived threat from the Soviet Union, following its takeover of E. Europe Warsaw Pact – This was the defensive military alliance formed six years after the formation of NATO. Established after W. Germany was allowed to join NATO & rearm in 1955. This alarmed the USSR prompting an alliance with its satellite states in E. Europe
Iron Curtain Term used to describe the boundary between cap capitalist W. Europe and communist E. Europe. As the Cold War intensified, the frontiers – especially in Germany – became physical & visible to both sides
Hot War & Third World ‘Hot War was avoided between US & USSR but both sides were keen to establish alliances Third World ~ First used to describe those countries in the Americas, Asia, & Africa that were economically underdeveloped. First World ~ economically advanced, capitalist states in Europe & US Second World ~ Mainly E. Europe in the communist block
Cold War & United Nations • Roosevelt & Churchill signed the Atlantic Charter in 1941 prior to US entry into WWII & desired a organization to replace the League of Nations = United Nations • During Cold War both superpowers used their place in UN Security Council (US, USSR, Britain, China, & France) & their allies in the General Assembly to block decisions they didn’t like, and to protect their allies
Truman Doctrine (Containment) • Containment: U.S policy to stop the spread of Communism • Truman Doctrine • Gave economic and military aid to Greece and Turkey • New national security organizations set-up • CIA • NSC (National Security Council)
The Marshall Plan • George Marshall (Secretary of State) • Economic assistance to rebuild • Economic Recovery Program (ERP) • Offered to all nations in Europe • Grants and loans • Eastern nations EXCEPT Czechoslovakia rejected loansSoviets replaced Czech govt. • Viewed as “dollar imperialism”
Origins of the Cold War • Overview • Distrust bet. Capitalist West & communist Soviet Union • When Germany invaded the SU in 1941 these differences had been put aside against the common threat of Nazi Germany • Tehran Conference ~ Stalin unhappy with delay of opening second front in the west & disagreements over post war features of Germany & Poland • Yalta & Potsdam Conference ~ differences depended especially when Truman became president • Tensions over Germany ~ growing Soviet domination of Eastern Europe ~ US drops atomic bombs on Japan and refuses to share technology with USSR
Long-term causes, 1917 -1941 • Bolshevik Revolution Nov. 1917 ~ brought to power the Bol. Party under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin & Leon Trotsky = world’s first workers state based on Marxist ideology • Great Contest ~ global conflict between two rival social systems of capitalism & socialism • Short lived Communist Revolutions in Germany & Hungary led Wilson, Clemenceau, & George to isolate the Soviet Union economically & diplomatically
Great Contest ~ Early Conflicts 1918 - 1921 • Lenin & Trotsky openly called for revolution in Europe • Consequently from 1918 to 1921 the new Soviet state faced military intervention in the Russian Civil War….armies from US, Britain, France, & Japan gave supplies and assistance to the opponents of the Bolsheviks • US & Wilson refused to recognize the new communist gov’t led by the Bolshevik’s in SU
Soviet Weakness during the 20’s • US economy flourished after WWI • Economic backwardness of Russia from tsarist days, Civil War, foreign intervention combined to weaken the SU • Treaty of Brest – Litovsk imposed by Germany = loss of territory & resources • Failures of collectives in agriculture
Co-operation 1929 – 1941 • Stalin’s rise to power in 1929 and desire to ensure security of the SU by building ‘Socialism in One Country’…Lenin called for ‘world revolution’ • Great depression in the capitalist west meant ‘Great Contest’ was less important than economic survival • Threat of WWII and rise of Hitler in 1933 improved relations bet. the west and SU…US finally recognizes the SU in 1933…1935 – 1938 Great Purge & Great Terror in SU strengthened anti-Soviet attitudes in the US
Co-Operation & WWII • FDR believed the Nazi Germany to be more expansionist that the SU • Believed that a weakened post-war SU could be persuaded to drop the idea of communism in return for security & economic reconstruction • Stalin saw the refusal of Britain & France to join an anti-Nazi alliance, appeasement @ Munich, as encouragement for Nazi-Germany to attack the USSR • The West saw the war against Finland and annexation of Baltic states as evidence of Soviet Expansion
Grand Alliance • When the USSR was attacked by Germany in June 1941 & then US by Japan in December, the US and Britain soon joined with the SU • Now saw Hitler as more serious threat • Outbreak of WWII seemed temporarily to end US/West v. USSR rivalry • Soviet’s had restrictions for Allied service personnel operating on Soviet territory • Stalin considered inadequate Allied aid, given most Axis forces were fighting in the Eastern front • Stalin even feared at times allies would make compromise with Hitler & launch a joint attack vs. SU
Characteristics of the first Cold War 1. Military build-up, particularly of the nuclear type on both sides 2. Intense propaganda campaigns between two camps, try to denigrate each other 3. No successful negotiations between the USA and USSR on issues of mutual concern in Europe or in the rest of the world (iron curtain) 4. Conflict between capitalism and communism found expression in third world situations 5. Tightening of controls within the capitalist and communist camps 6. East-West confrontation came to dominate or condition other conflicts
Issues of First Cold War • Poland’s future • the question of Germany • spheres of influence • military insecurity
Poland’s future Disputes over Yalta Stalin’s fears/concerns: no invasion, resources needed, rebuilding requires control, fear of capitalist encirclement, inevitability of war with capitalists, impossibility of disarmament - Communist manipulation of elections ensured a communist victory
What to do with Germany? • At the Potsdam Conference in 1945, it was decided by the four victorious powers of World War II - Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America that the territory of the former German Empire as defined by the borders of 1937 was to be divided into four zones of occupation. http://www.dhm.de/ENGLISH/ausstellungen/breakthrough/S1.htm
Germany-Two Countries - 1949 • The Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany, was formally created in September 1949. October 7th 1949 The German Democratic Republic, East Germany was set up by the Soviets
Berlin Blockade: 24 June 1948 -12 May 1949 • The three western sections of Germany and Berlin and created a West German government and announced a new currency. • Stalin responded on June 24, 1948 by attempting to force the western allies out of Berlin altogether. He cut off rail and road access to the western side of the city and turned off electricity.
Berlin Airlift Begins: June 25, 1948 • The United States and Great Britain mounted a massive airlift to keep the western sectors supplied with the 5000 tons of food per day and fuel that the city needed…and chocolate for children! Lt. Halvorsen dropping candy. He became known as the “candy bomber”.
Berlin Airlift 277,264 flights and 1.5 million tons of aid.
Spheres of Influence • As early as February 1946, the USSR had been attempting to increase influence in ‘its’ zone or sphere of influence in E. Europe • Stalin was desperate to rebuild the SU war devastated economy • In response to the Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan Soviet influence and control in E. Europe was stepped up resulting in increasingly communist – dominated governments in Poland, Hungary, Romania, and Albania
Truman Doctrine: Background • Greek Government vs Greek Communists • Truman requested that Congress provide $400,000,000 worth of aid to both the Greek and Turks to stave off communism in the region • Truman argued that a Communist victory in the Greek Civil War would endanger the political stability of Turkey, which would undermine the political stability of the Middle East. • This could not be allowed in light of the region's immense strategic importance to U.S. national security.
Truman Doctrine 1947 • The United States was compelled to assist "free peoples" in their struggles against "totalitarian regimes" because the spread of authoritarianism would "undermine the foundations of international peace and hence the security of the United States." • The Truman Doctrine committed the United States to actively offering assistance to preserve the political integrity of democratic nations when such an offer was deemed to be in the best interest of the United States.
Truman Doctrine: Legacy • In the words of the Truman Doctrine, it became "the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."The Truman Doctrine effectively reoriented U.S. foreign policy, away from withdrawal and isolation to one of possible intervention in far away conflicts. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmQD_W8Pcxg&feature=PlayList&p=2287E59C541E7692&index=5
Marshall Plan 1948: Rebuild War-torn Europe • “The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.” ~ George Marshall
Marshall Plan: Legacy • A great humanitarian effort. • Secretary of State Marshall became the only military general ever to receive a Nobel Prize for peace. • The Marshall Plan also institutionalized and legitimized the concept of U.S. foreign aid programs, which have become a integral part of U.S. foreign policy.
Developments in Asia & Indochina At first US had not been worried about Chinese Civil War between the nationalist Guomindang (GMD) & Chinese Communist Party (CCP) Japanese aggression first against Manchuria and then against mainland China led US gov’t to increase support for Jiang Jieshi’s nationalist gov’t after 1941 1945 – US & USSR hoped China could form a coalition gov’t Truce broke in early 1946 US continued support of Jiang Jieshi and as communist victory seemed imminent, US began to slow aid Communist China was seen as a defeat of Truman’s policy of containment 1950 – Sino Soviet Treaty increased US concerns and contributed to the McCarthy ‘witch hunts’
Mao Zedong & China
US attitude toward communism in China • Early Soviet Involvement • 1921 CCP (Chinese Communist Party) is formed & advised by the Bolshevik gov’t of SU..Sun Yat-sen would pass away in 1925 & Jiang Jieshi succeeded Sun Yat-sen & moves the country to the right (democratic) 1937 US had not placed much importance on events in China Japan’s invasion of China causes concern because of US interest in Pacific region China would be liberated from Japenese control with the dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima & Nagasaki
US Involvement in China US does not want CCP to take control – send aid and troops to key cities Marshall Mission – create a coalition gov’t backed by US & SU Civil War between CCP & GMD 1946 US sent $200 million in aid to China and Jiang Jieshi to fight off CCP but in 1947 Jiang flees to Taiwan as capital city Nanjing falls to CCP & Mao proclaims the birth of the new People’s Republic of China
Impact of communist victory in China • August 1949 – SU explodes first atomic device • One month later China falls to communism • No longer threat of nuclear monopoly enough to contain communism • Truman’s gov’t scene as weak • Mao & Stalin sign 30 Year Treaty of Friendship, Alliance & Mutual Assistance
McCarthyism Senator Joseph McCarthy’s anti-communist crusade within the US ‘Red Scare’ – suspicions of people working within our country to aid SU McCarthy claimed he had a list of 205 State Department officials who were members of the Communist Party Later he would reduce # to 57 Red Scare became more hysterical after the start of the Korean War
Korean War Cold War tensions in Asia shifted from China to Korea, which had been divided in 1945 at the 38th Parallel (for purpose of dealing with Japanese troops) North Korea – Kim Il Sung supported by SU South Korea – Syngman Rhee supported by US Communist North attacks the South in attempt to reunify country SU had been boycotting participation in UN Security Council…UN agrees to send army to help South North had early victories…pushed back by US General Douglas MacArthur
Korean War As US / UN forces drive up the peninsula and invade North Korea China sends in army to aid North MacArthur calls for nuclear weapons vs. China Stalemate in the war sets in and an armistice is signed in 1953 US begun to arrange a series of military alliances in the Pacific, designed to secure what it called Defensive Perimeter Crucial to this was the reconstruction of Japan – vast industrial potential…US gave $500 million in aid to rebuild
Treaties • ANZUS Pact – US support against communist activities in Pacific Region while Australia and New Zealand promised to help US against any military aggression • Korean War Impacts – increased military spending, becomes global phenomenon, US takes role as global ‘policeman’ against communism
Fluctuating Relations 1954 – 68