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Unit 4 – Land use

Unit 4 – Land use

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Unit 4 – Land use

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  1. Ch.13 Unit 4 – Land use Second-Growth forest Types of forest Old-Growth forest Tree Plantation

  2. Ch.13 Unit 4 – Land use Growing Trees

  3. Ch.13 Unit 4 – Land use Forests Economic Services Ecological Services Support energy flow and chemical cycling Reduce soil erosion Absorb and release water Purify water and air Influence local and regional climate Carbon Sink Provide numerous wildlife habitats Fuelwood Lumber Pulp to make paper Mining Livestock grazing Recreation Jobs

  4. Ch.13 Unit 4 – Land use Harvesting Trees

  5. Ch.13 Unit 4 – Land use • Changing color of the surface and the amount of sunlight reflected and absorbed (albedo). • Increasing the amount of water transpired and evaporated from the surface to the atmosphere. • Changing the rate at which greenhouse gases are released from the Earth’s surface into the atmosphere. • Changing the “surface roughness,” which affects wind speed at the surface How Forests Alter the Atmosphere

  6. Ch.13 Unit 4 – Land use Deforestation Is caused by: Leads to: More or Less? Primary Productivity Nutrient recycling Biodiversity Soil erosion Transpiration Air pollution

  7. Ch.13 Unit 4 – Land use Sustainable Forestry Unlike fossil fuels, wood is a sustainable resource.

  8. Ch.13 Unit 4 – Land use Protected areas: Parks, Nature Preserves & Wilderness • Managing parks for biological conservation is a relatively new idea. • 1864 Congress donated Yosemite Valley to California for preservation as a state park. • March 1, 1872, Congress establishes Yellowstone National Park • for the first time signified that public lands were to be set aside and administered by the federal government "for the benefit and enjoyment of the people." • 1891, President Harrison established Yellowstone Timberland Reserve as the nation's first forest reserve, • 1903 President Roosevelt established Pelican Island in Florida as the first national wildlife refuge. • August 25, 1916, National Park Service (NPS) created under the Department of the Interior

  9. Ch.13 Unit 4 – Land use Protected areas: Parks, Nature Preserves & Wilderness • How much land should be in parks? • Costa Rica – 12% of total land • Kenya – 7.6% • France – 11% • U.S. – 11% • How should protected lands be used? • Tourist attractions? • Recreation? • Timber & minerals? • Be familiar with Table 13.2 (p.253) Goals of Parks, Nature Preserves and Wilderness Areas

  10. Ch.13 Unit 4 – Land use Protected areas: Parks, Nature Preserves & Wilderness Grand Teton Crater lake Big Bend Acadia Yosemite Yellowstone Everglades

  11. Ch.13 Unit 4 – Land use Protected areas: Parks, Nature Preserves & Wilderness A model biosphere reserve that contains a protected inner core surrounded by two buffer zones that people can use for multiple use. • Nature Preserves • -Currently 12% of earth’s land area is protected. • -Only 5% is strictly protected from harmful human activities. • -Conservation biologists call for full protection of at least 20% of earth’s land area representing multiple examples of all biomes. There are currently 2,205 preservations in the United States

  12. Ch.13 Unit 4 – Land use Protected areas: Parks, Nature Preserves & Wilderness Should wilderness be opened up for mineral and timber removal ?? Wilderness: an area undisturbed by people

  13. Ch.13 Unit 4 – Land use Should wilderness be opened up for mineral and timber removal ?? Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) Should we drill for oil? Est in ANWR – 4.3 – 11.8 billion barrels US Daily use – 19 mil. barrels

  14. Ch.13 Unit 4 – Land use Laws There are many relevant laws associated with forests and their management. Your APES exam will address these laws, therefore I expect you to know them. I suggest you make flashcards with the following laws:

  15. Ch.13 Unit 4 – Land use • Healthy Forest Initiative (2003) • Forest Reserve Act (1891) • Multiple Use & Sustained Yield Act (1960, 1968) • Federal Land Policy & Management Act (1976) • Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (1976) • National Forests Management Act (1976)

  16. Ch.14 Unit 4 – Land use Wildlife, Fisheries and Endangered Species Wildlife management: goal – to restore the abundance of a species In order to do this, understanding Carrying Capacity is critical Logistic Carrying Capacity – defined by the logistic growth curve Optimum Sustainable Population – Maximum population that can be sustained without decreasing population or its habitat The Grizzly Bear Examples p.267-270 Why is this so difficult? The American Bison

  17. Ch.14 Unit 4 – Land use Fisheries • 16% of protein worldwide • Commercial fishing dominated by: • Japan, China, Russia, Chile and the US • 90% of the fish harvest comes from continental shelves • (10% of the ocean) Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY):

  18. Ch.15 Unit 4 – Land use Fisheries To maximize profitability it is critical to know… Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY): Pop. size that yields max. production – ½ of carrying capacity

  19. Ch.15 Unit 4 – Land use Fisheries So, is commercial fishing sustainable? Is MSY becoming clear with this data? The Global Fish Harvest Catch per unit effort (i.e. per 100 hooks) Possibly

  20. Ch.15 Unit 4 – Land use Conserving Wildlife Threatened (May become endangered) Endangered (In danger of extinction) Extinct Local Extinction: A species disappears from part of its range. Ecological Extinction: So few members of a species remain that it can no longer play it ecological role Global (Biological) Extinction: A species no longer exists on Earth

  21. Ch.15 Unit 4 – Land use Characteristics of endangered species:

  22. Ch.15 Unit 4 – Land use • Causes of extinction: H I P P O Habitat destruction, degradation, & fragmentation

  23. Ch.15 Unit 4 – Land use • Causes of extinction: H I P P O Habitat destruction, degradation, & fragmentation

  24. Ch.15 Unit 4 – Land use • Causes of extinction: H I P P O Habitat destruction, degradation, & fragmentation Invasive (non-native) species

  25. Causes of extinction: Characteristics of Successful Invader Species Characteristics of Ecosystems Vulnerable to Invader Species • High reproductive rate, short generation time (r-selected species) • Pioneer species • Long lived • High dispersal rate • Release growth-inhibiting chemicals into soil • Generalists • High genetic variability • Climate similar to habitat of invader • Absence of predators on invading species • Early successional systems • Low diversity of native species • Absence of fire • Disturbed by human activities

  26. Ch.15 Unit 4 – Land use • Causes of extinction: H I P P O Habitat destruction, degradation, & fragmentation Invasive (non-native) species Population Growth Pollution Overharvesting US Endangered Species Act One of the world’s most far-reaching and controversial environmental laws is the 1973 U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). • ESA forbids federal agencies (besides defense department) to carry out / fund projects that would jeopardize an endangered species. • ESA makes it illegal for Americans to engage in commerce associated with or hunt / kill / collect endangered or threatened species.

  27. Ch.29 Unit 4 – Land use • Urban Environments 49% of the world’s human population lives on 2% of the land (in urban areas)

  28. Ch.29 Unit 4 – Land use • The City Ecosystem A city cannot exist without a countryside to support it The more concentrated the human population the more land is available for other uses, so cities can benefit urban areas and wilderness

  29. Ch.29 Unit 4 – Land use • Urban Areas are Heat Islands Manmade structures tend to absorb and retain more heat than forested areas

  30. Ch.29 Unit 4 – Land use • City Location • Cities developed in areas that could be easily defended and has • good building locations • water supplies and • access to resources (transportation) Influenced by: Situation: the placement of a city in respect to other areas Site: Summation of all environmental features • For example: Cities found on the fall line in the eastern U.S. • Where the solid bedrock of the Appalachian Mountains transitions to the softer more easily eroded sedimentary rock. • Provided waterpower • Ships couldn’t navigate past • Difficult to bridge the rivers across the easily-eroded sedimentary rock

  31. Ch.29 Unit 4 – Land use • Urban Sprawl: the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density and auto-dependent development on rural land with a high segregation of uses (commercial/residential) Has lead to: (or megalopolis) • High car dependence. • Wilderness/agricultural land used for development • Inadequate facilities e.g.: cultural,emergency,health... • Higher per-person infrastructure costs. • Inefficient street layouts. • Low diversity of housing and business types. • Higher per-capita use of energy, land, and water. • Perceived low aesthetic value • More single family residences on larger lots. • Lower land prices. • Less experience of noise and pollution. • Suburban areas generally associated with "sprawl" tend to have lower crime and higher-quality schools. • Perceived overwhelming consumer preference for sprawl-type developments. San Jose CA

  32. Ch.29 Unit 4 – Land use • Urban Planning integrates land use planning and transportation planning to improve the environmental, economic and social environments of communities • Aspects: • Safety (historically) • Aesthetics • Transportation • Suburbanization (Urban Sprawl) • Light & Noise Pollution • Water & Air Pollution • Reconstruction & Renewal from Decay

  33. Ch.29 Unit 4 – Land use • The Good and the Bad • Urban areas can offer more job opportunities and better education and health, and can help protect biodiversity by concentrating people. • Cities are rarely self-sustaining, can threaten biodiversity, lack trees, concentrate pollutants and noise, spread infectious diseases, and are centers of poverty crime, and terrorism.

  34. Ch.29 Unit 4 – Land use