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Chapter 14

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Chapter 14

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  1. Chapter 14 Over-the-Counter Drugs

  2. OTC Market • OTC drugs in the United States have surpassed over $16 billion in yearly sales • The perception that nonprescription drugs (OTC) are completely safe can have grave consequences

  3. Categories of OTC Drugs • Category I: Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) • Category II: Not Generally Recognized as Safe or is improperly labeled • Category III: Cannot be sold

  4. POPULAR OTC MEDICINES • ANALGESICS • COLD MEDICINES • COUGH MEDICATIONS • ANTACIDS • SLEEP AIDS • OTC STIMULANTS • WEIGHT LOSS PRODUCTS

  5. ANALGESICS (PAIN KILLERS) • ASPIRIN (BAYER) • ACETAMINOPHEN (TYLENOL) • IBUPROFEN (ADVIL) • KETOPROFEN (ORUDIS) • NAPROXEN (ALEVE)

  6. ASPIRIN • GOOD ANALGESIC • GOOD ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT • GOOD ANTIPYRETIC • “THINS THE BLOOD” • HARD ON THE STOMACH

  7. ACETAMINOPHEN • GOOD ANTIPYRETIC • NOT HARD ON THE STOMACH • HARD ON THE LIVER • DOES NOT THIN BLOOD • NOT GOOD AS AN ANTI-INFLAMMATORY • DRUG OF CHOICE FOR CHILDREN

  8. IBUPROFEN • GOOD ANALGESIC • GOOD ANTI-INFLAMMATORY • LESS HARSH ON STOMACH THAN ASPIRIN • GOOD FOR MENSTRUAL CRAMPS • GOOD ANTIPYRETIC • APPROVED USE WITH CHILDREN

  9. KETOPROFEN • GOOD ANALGESIC • GOOD ANTI-INFLAMMATORY • LESS HARSH ON STOMACH THAN ASPIRIN • GOOD ANTIPYRETIC

  10. NAPROXEN • EXCELLENT ANTI-INFLAMMATORY • GOOD ANTIPYRETIC • GOOD ANALGESIC

  11. COLD MEDICINES CAUSE OF COLDS? VIRUS COLD MEDICINES TREAT SYMPTOMS “SHOT GUN” REMEDIES MANY NIGHT TIME COLD MEDICINES CONTAIN ALCOHOL

  12. COUGH MEDICINES • WHAT IS A COUGH? REFLEX ACTION IN BRAIN • TYPES OF COUGHS -CONGESTED AND PRODUCTIVE -CONGESTED AND NONPRODUCTIVE -DRY AND NONPRODUCTIVE

  13. COUGH MEDICINES OTC COUGH MEDICINES CONTAIN • EXPECTORANTS AND/OR • ANTITUSSIVES EXPECTORANTS: STIMULATE FLOW OF FLUID IN LUNGS ANTITUSSIVES: STOP COUGH

  14. ANTACIDS • ANTACIDS NEUTRALIZE STOMACH ACID THUS REDUCING THE SYMPTOMS OF THE UPSET STOMACH • OTC PRODUCTS CONTAIN SUCH DRUGS AS SODIUM BICARBONATE, CALCIUM CARBONATE, SALTS OF MAGESIUM AND ALUMIUM • PRODUCT EXAMPLES INCLUDE: TUMS, ROLAIDS, ALKA SELTZER

  15. SLEEP AIDS AND SEDATIVES • OTC SLEEP AIDS AND SEDATIVES GENERALLY CONTAIN ANTIHISTAMINES WHICH PRODUCE DROWSINESSS • THE BENEFITS OF ANTIHISTAMINES AS SEDATIVES AND SLEEP AGENTS ARE LIMITED • PRODUCE EXAMPLES INCLUDE Nytol, Sominex, and Seep-Eze

  16. OTC STIMULANTS • MOST OTC STIMULANTS CONTAIN CAFFEINE • PRODUCT EXAMPLES INCLUDE VIVARIN AND NO DOZ

  17. WEIGHT LOSS PRODUCTS • OTC WEIGHT LOSS PRODUCTS INCLUDE STARCH BLOCKERS, PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE, AND BENZOCAINE • STARCH BLOCKERS PRESUMABLY BLOCKED STARCHY FOODS FROM BEING ABSORBED (NEVER PROVEN EFFECTIVE

  18. PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE (PPA) IS A STIMULANT THAT IS EFFECTIVE IN SUPRESSING APPETITE SIDE EFFECTS INCLUDE HEADACHE, ANXIETY, HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE, AND INSOMNIA FDA HAS ISSUED A STRONG WARNING AGAINST USE OF PPA

  19. BENZOCAINE IS A TOPICAL ANESTHETIC THAT IS PUT INTO A CHEWING GUM. AS NUMBNESS SETS IN THE DESIRE FOR FOOD DIMINISHES

  20. Summary • Over-the-Counter drugs are drugs that can be purchased without a prescription • Popular OTC medicines include analgesics, cold medicines, cough medicines, antacids, sleep aids, stimulants, and weight loss products

  21. Analgesics are medicines that relieve pain • Cough medicines contain dextromethorphan, a potentially addictive chemical • Sleep aids mainly contain antihistamines

  22. Weight loss products contain stimulants which suppress appetite