The Restoration 1625-1798 Charles II (r. 1625-1649)
Charles I’s clashes with Parliament led to revolt and his execution in 1649. The English Civil War • The Puritan Oliver Cromwell and • Parliament ruled until Cromwell’s • death in 1658, but his policies • had alienated much of the country.
Tired of the wars and contention of the past 20 • years, Parliament invited Charles II back from exile • In France The Restoration of the Monarchy • Charles brought back with him • a love of fashion, theater, • and the arts.
James II succeeded Charles II in 1685. More Trouble • A devout Catholic, James clashed with • Parliament over religion.
In 1688 Parliament invited Mary, the protestant • daughter of the king, and her husband, • William of Orange to rule jointly. The Glorious Revolution • Charles II fled to France, no • blood was shed, and there • was much rejoicing.
In 1689 Parliament passed a • bill of rights, limiting the power • of the monarchy Limiting Royal Power • In succeeding years, a cabinet • of ministers led by the prime • minister would gradually • begin to rule England.
As agricultural practices improved, towns • and cities grew because less workers were • needed on farms. Social Trends • Industrialization and inventions • after 1750 led to growth of • large factories in cities • and increased wealth.
“How” questions replaced “Why” questions • about nature, the human body, and the • universe. The Enlightenment--The Age of Reason • Most philosophers and • scientists remained very • religious. • View of God changed, • with Deism becoming • widely accepted • among intellectuals.
The Enlightenment--The Age of Reason • Superstitions concerning • natural phenomena • were dispelled. • Edmund Halley predicted • the path of comets • and when they would • occur.
The Enlightenment--The Age of Reason • By the end of this era progress, for many, • was equated with misery. • Some began to lose faith in man’s ability • to solve every problem with reason.
Writing of the Restoration • The style was witty, sophisticated, and • self-conscious. • There was a fondness for • satire. • Aphorisms—short statements • that express a viewpoint or • truth—were popular. Samuel Johnson
Writing of the Restoration • Influenced by Greek and Roman writers. • Often referred to myths, gods, and heroes • of ancient times. • Writing is often called • neoclassical. AlexanderPope