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Principles of Occupational Safety and Health

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Principles of Occupational Safety and Health

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  1. Principles of Occupational Safety and Health Part 1 Accidents and OSHA Standards Jeffrey S. Oakley, Ph.D., CSP

  2. Goals for this Series • Follow a Book “Occupational Safety and Health” • Introduction to Collegiate Safety Courses • 4 Parts • Accidents and OSHA Standards • Hazard Identification • Hazard Analysis and Prevention • Ethics and Safety Management • Education and Training (Applied) • Trial for Other Series (Industrial Hygiene, Environmental, Etc.) COM - Safety Principles

  3. Learning ObjectivesPart 1 – Accidents and OSHA Standards • Understand the History and Purpose of Safety and Health Programs (Accident Prevention Programs) • Understand the goals of OSHAct and OSHA • Understand the Effects of Accidents and Accident Theories • Understand the Need for Worker’s Compensation Insurance COM - Safety Principles

  4. CHAPTER 1 – Safety and Health Movement, Then and Now History of H & S movement is important to understanding the “roots” and future. • Can be traced back to the Prehistoric Era • Pre-Industrial Revolution • Post-Industrial Revolution • Health and Safety Movement today COM - Safety Principles

  5. PREHISTORIC • Defensive weaponry • Silicosis from hard quartz • Mining for flint BABYLONIANS • 2000 B.C. – 6th Ruler, Hammurabi • Code of Hammurabi • Set precedent for the an early form of worker’s compensation insurance • “If a man has caused the loss of a gentleman’s eye, his own eye shall be caused to be lost” COM - Safety Principles

  6. EGYPTIANS • Organized construction of temples, pyramids and tombs • Rameses II ( 1500 B.C.) • Canal from Mediterranean to Red Sea • Constructed huge temple “Ramesseum” • Provided medical services for workers to maintain a “healthy” workforce GREEKS • Nicander, poet & physician • Wrote poem, “Alexipharmaca” describing lead poisoning • Hippocrates, Father of Medicine • Described effects of tetanus • Hippocratic Oath COM - Safety Principles

  7. ROMANS • Built extensive aqueducts, sewage systems, public baths, latrines and ventilated houses • Poets and philosophers wrote about ills of certain occupations, toxic substances, plague etc. • Alexander the Great – first medical services for the army • Pliny the Elder – first respirators made of ox bladders for workers exposed to mercury COM - Safety Principles

  8. 6TH – 17TH CENTURY • Construction and world exploration • Some power-driven factories • Start of textile industry • Poor living conditions and plague COM - Safety Principles

  9. 18th CENTURY • Ramazzini “ Father of Occupational Medicine” • Wrote Discourse on Disease of Workers • Suggested physicians ask: “What is your occupation?” • Mass manufacturing textiles cotton & wool followed by metal, wood and leather goods COM - Safety Principles

  10. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • Inanimate power sources - coal & steam • Substitution of machines for human skills • Invention of new methods of manufacturing. • Organization of work in large units • What effect did these changes have on the safety and health of workers? COM - Safety Principles

  11. Lifting Empire State Building COM - Safety Principles

  12. Supervising Empire State Building COM - Safety Principles

  13. Cable Spinning Golden Gate Bridge COM - Safety Principles

  14. Riveting Empire State Building COM - Safety Principles

  15. Bolting Empire State Building COM - Safety Principles

  16. Slinging Empire State Building COM - Safety Principles

  17. Inspecting Empire State Building COM - Safety Principles

  18. Electrical work Eiffel Tower COM - Safety Principles

  19. Hanging about Empire State Building COM - Safety Principles

  20. Lifting Golden Gate Bridge COM - Safety Principles

  21. Admiring the view Golden Gate Bridge COM - Safety Principles

  22. MILESTONES • 1802 – Health & Morals of Apprentices Act • 1867 – Massachusetts factory inspections • 1868 – first barrier safeguard patent • 1869 – BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics • 1877 – Massachusetts required safeguards on machines AND Employer’s Liability Law • 1892 – First Safety Program established • 1907 – D.O.L created the Bureau of Mines • 1908 – Concept of Worker’s Compensation COM - Safety Principles

  23. MILESTONES • 1913 National Council of Industrial Safety • 1936 Walsh Healy Public Contracts Act • 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act • 1969 Coal Mine Health and Safety Act • 1970 Occupational Safety & Health Act • 1977 Federal Mine Safety Act COM - Safety Principles

  24. TRAGEDIES • 1930’s HAWK’S NEST – silica & silicosis • 1964 ASBESTOS FINDINGS • 1968 COAL MINE EXPLOSION – West Virginia killed 78 • 1984 BHOPAL INDIA – mass release of MIC 3000 fatalities and > 50,000 exposures • Criminal Negligence • Corporate Prejudice • Avoidance (avoiding safety rules in USA) COM - Safety Principles

  25. ORGANIZED LABOR • Organized labor has fought for safer working conditions and compensation for injured workers. • Overturned the anti-labor laws: • Fellow-servant rule – employers were not liable for workplace injuries that resulted from negligence of other employees • Contributory negligence – If actions of employees contributed to own injuries • Assumption of Risk – workers who accept a job assume the risks of the job and consequences of the risk COM - Safety Principles

  26. SPECIFIC HEALTH PROBLEMS • Coal Worker’s Pneumoconiosis (Black Lung) • Mercury poisoning • Minimata Japan • 1940s hat making industry in New York • Silicosis • Asbestosis COM - Safety Principles

  27. ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROGRAMS • World Wars I and II – discovered connection between quality and safety • World War II – labor shortage ( women in workplace) • Incentive for employers to create safe workplace Organized safety programs by management introduced the three E’s of safety: • ENGINEERING • EDUCATION • ENFORCEMENT COM - Safety Principles

  28. DEVELOPMENT OF SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS • 1912- National Safety Council NSC • 1914- American Society of Safety Engineers ASSE • 1938- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene ACGIH • 1939- American Industrial Hygiene Assoc. AIHA • 1970- Occupational Safety & Health Administration OSHA • 1970 - National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH COM - Safety Principles

  29. GROWTH OF PROFESSION • More large companies employing H & S professionals • Influence of OSHA Standards • Greatest growth is in construction and service industries • Increasing emphasis on certified professionals • Public awareness and employee expectations COM - Safety Principles

  30. CHAPTER 1 REVIEW and DISCUSSION • If OSHA went away, what would companies do? • Do Unions do much for Safety and Health anymore? • What other regulation or movement have an impact on safety and health besides OSHA? • What is next in the safety and health field? Review Questions 1. How did workplace tragedies affect the safety movement? 2. Explain the three E’s of safety and how does it apply to safety in the field? Key Terms: Assumption of Risk, Contributory Negligence, Fellow Servant Rule COM - Safety Principles

  31. Chapter 2 Accidents and their Effects • According to National Safety Council: • During a 10 minute speech -- 2 persons will be killed and about 170 will suffer a disabling injury, costing $2,800,000. • On the average -- 11 accidental deaths and 1,030 disabling injuries every hour. • Occupationally – 14 deaths a day • Are Deaths at Work going up or down? COM - Safety Principles

  32. DIRECT AND INDIRECT COSTS OF ACCIDENTS Direct Costs • Lost wages • Medical Expenses • Insurance premiums & administration • Property damage Indirect Costs (Hidden and/or Uninsured Costs) • Production loss • Job -retraining • Downtime and decreased production • Costs of investigator’s time • Overtime wages resulting from incident COM - Safety Principles

  33. COSTS OF ACCIDENTS • $$$$$ spent responding to accidents are $$$ that could have been reinvested in technology, research, facility upgrades etc. • Proactive vs. Reactive • Why should WE prevent accidents? • Economic reasons • Moral reasons • Legal reasons COM - Safety Principles

  34. WORK-RELATEDNESS AND LOST TIME • Not all accidents are “work-related” • Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) website provides work-related death/injury statistics • Lost time due to work injuries accounts for approximately 35,000,000 hours/year! • Work-related fatalities and lost time injuries must be recorded for OSHA and BLS. • INCIDENT RATE ? IR = No. recordable injuries / illness X 200,000 Total no. hrs worked by employees/year COM - Safety Principles

  35. WORK INJURIES BY ACCIDENT TYPE • from which the accident resulted, such as: • OVEREXERTION • IMPACT INJURIES ( STRUCK-BY OR CAUGHT BETWEEN) • FALLS • According to the latest BLS report, what are the two leading types of injuries? COM - Safety Principles

  36. DEATH RATES BY INDUSTRY Agencies/ organizations which collect statistics on fatalities include: 1. BLS - Bureau of Labor Statistics 2. NSC - National Safety Council 3. National Center for Health Statistics SIC codes - Standard Industry Classification COM - Safety Principles

  37. PARTS OF BODY INJURED • Important to keep records on the parts of the body injured. Why? • Most frequent injured body parts include: 1. Back 2. Legs and fingers 3. Arms 4. Trunk 5. Hands COM - Safety Principles

  38. REPETITIVE STRESS INJURIES • RSI - Repetitive Stress Injuries is a broad term which includes injuries resulting from cumulative trauma to the soft tissues • MSD - Musculoskeletal Disorders • CTS - Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - common repetitive stress injury to the wrist which effects the median nerve. COM - Safety Principles

  39. ESTIMATING COSTS OF ACCIDENTS • Safety professionals must show COSTS of accidents are greater than the COSTS of prevention. WHY? - CBA • Look at both the INSURED AND UNINSURED (direct and indirect) costs • Calculate the costs • HOW DO YOU GET THE NUMBERS? COM - Safety Principles

  40. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW AND DISCUSSION • How does Lawsuits affect the reasons to increase the safety? • If Company A has a IR of .7 and Company B has a IR of 5.6, does that mean the Company A has a better safety program? • Why is Company C’s IR of 2.5 better than Company’s D 1.3? Review 1. What are some direct and indirect costs? 2. Why is it important for the Safety Professional to estimate accident costs? 3. How are incident rates calculated? Define the following ACRONYMS: BLS, NSC, OSHA, MSD, SIC COM - Safety Principles

  41. Chapter 3 – THEORIES OF ACCIDENT CAUSATION • DOMINO THEORY • HUMAN FACTORS THEORY • ACCIDENT INCIDENT • SYSTEMS THEORY • COMBINATION THEORY • DRUGS, ALCOHOL, AND DEPRESSION • MANAGEMENT FAILURE COM - Safety Principles

  42. THE DOMINO THEORY • 1920’s - Herbert Heinrich, Travelers Insurance • 88% caused by UNSAFE ACTS • 10% caused by UNSAFE CONDITIONS • 2% UNAVOIDABLE • **This has been proven false in many other theories. COM - Safety Principles

  43. HEINRICH’S AXIOMS 1. Injuries result from series of factors, one is the accident itself. 2. Accident occurs only from an unsafe act by a person and/or hazardous condition. 3. Most accidents result from unsafe behavior. 4. Unsafe act does not always immediately result in accident. 5. Reason for unsafe act can guide correction COM - Safety Principles

  44. AXIOM’S CON’T 6. Severity of accident is fortuitous and accident is preventable 7. Best accident prevention = best quality & production techniques 8. Management should assume responsibility for safety. 9. Supervisor is key in prevention 10. Accidents have direct and indirect costs. COM - Safety Principles

  45. 5 DOMINO’S • 5 FACTORS in sequence lead to accident: 1. Ancestry and social environment 2. Fault of person 3. Unsafe act/ Hazardous condition 4. Accident 5. Injury COM - Safety Principles

  46. DOMINO THEORY - 2 POINTS 1. Injuries are caused by the action of preceding factors 2. The removal of the central factor (unsafe act or hazardous condition) negates the action of the preceding factors, thereby preventing accidents and injuries. How do you use this model to prevent accidents? COM - Safety Principles

  47. HUMAN FACTORS THEORY Attributes accidents to chain of events ultimately caused by human error. 1. Overload • Environmental factors • Internal factors • Situational factors 2. Inappropriate response 3. Inappropriate activities COM - Safety Principles

  48. ACCIDENT/INCIDENT THEORY • An extension of H.F. Theory • Developed by Dan Petersen • New elements ie. “ergonomic traps” • Conscious or unconscious decision to err • Causal relationship between management decision, management behavior and safety. • MULTIPLE CAUSES COM - Safety Principles

  49. SYSTEMS THEORY • A system is a group of interrelated components that interact together to form a whole. • Likelihood of an accident determined by how these components interact. • Interacting components: • Machine • Person • Environment COM - Safety Principles

  50. RISK DECISIONS 1. JOB REQUIREMENTS 2. WORKER ABILITY & LIMITATION 3. GAIN IF TASK IS ACCOMPLISHED 4. LOSS IF ATTEMPTED TASK FAILS 5. LOSS IF TASK IS NOT ATTEMPTED What is you HAD to do a job that is extremely high hazard? COM - Safety Principles