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Leadership development: A paradigm shift in anger management curricula

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Leadership development: A paradigm shift in anger management curricula

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  1. Leadership development: A paradigm shift in anger management curricula Isaac Burt Sally V. Lewis Jonathan Ohrt Tabitha Young

  2. Purpose of Study • Look at existing anger management curricula • Integrate leadership development skills into behavioral programs • Serve to act as potential change agents to reduce negative patterns of thought • Used to enhance productivity of marginalized populations

  3. Past Research • Disenfranchised students are frequently misunderstood by teachers, counselors, and peers alike (Deffenbacher, Lynch, Oetting, & Kemper, 1996) • Social evaluations tend to dictate how a person assesses themselves • Has an emphasis on self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986; 1997)

  4. Past Research Continued: • People elicit certain social responses based on attributes such as social stigma (Lerner, 1982). • Within marginalized populations, society responds to this populace largely depending on their social roles or status • This is given to them by socialization (Bandura, 1989)

  5. Methodology • Participants • Implemented in four elementary schools across a large southeastern city • Thirty-two youth were referred to this program for a myriad of socially maladaptive behaviors • Ages ranged from 9 to 11 years • In the 4th or 5th grade

  6. Methodology Continued: • Participants consisted of 20 males (65%) and 12 females (35%) • 59% (19) identified as Black • 32% (10) identified as Caucasian • 6% (2) identified as Mixed Race • 3% (1) identified as Other

  7. Methodology Continued: • A priori criteria was implemented • Done in order to eliminate certain participants from the study, so that other factors will not confound the investigation • Dependent variables are improvement in leadership development and self-regulation skills

  8. Methodology Continued: • Operationally defined-leadership development skills entails creating three core roles • (1) personal ownership of the environment • (2) teacher • (3) consultation

  9. Methodology Continued: • Independent variables were the number of sessions attended • Levels were either in 10 or 12 sessions • Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient was utilized • Determine if there is a relationship between number of sessions attended and perceived leadership development ability • Hypothesized that groups that attended longer will have a significant relationship with an increase of leadership development and self-regulation skills

  10. Procedure • Self-report questionnaires were given systematically over a 7, 9 and 12 week period • Participants ranked themselves according to their perceived leadership and anger management skills • Questionnaires were administered before and after the group interventions, similar to a pre-test, post-test analysis • The sessions were consecutive and each lasted one hour in duration • The groups were comprised of eight members from four participating schools • Three of the schools had a 100% percent completion rate, while one had a 75% completion rate

  11. Procedure Continued: • Participants learned activities which focused on behavioral transformation, and recognition of triggers and cues • Participants practiced leadership skills by teaching others in their group the same activities • Participants were told that they were the instructors, and that their goal was to fine tune their leadership skills with peers

  12. Procedure Continued: • Participants went into classrooms and taught the skills they learned to their peers • This allowed peers to see them in a different light • Helped in assisting teacher’s reexamination of their personal perceptions of the participant • Increased the self-image and efficacy of students

  13. References • Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. W. H. Freeman and Company. • Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development. Vol. 6. Six Theories of child development (pp. 1-60). Greenwich, CT. JAI Press. • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. • Deffenbacher, J.L.,Lynch, R.S., Oetting,E.R.,& Kemper, C.C. (1996). Anger reduction in early adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(2), 149-157 • Lerner, R.M. (1982). Children and adolescents as producers of their own development. Developmental Review, 2 (4), 342-370.