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# Volume determination and density

Lab 3. Volume determination and density. Outline. Reading a meniscus Volume determination and Significant Figures Mathematic treatment of data Safety Concerns Next Assignment Summary of Significant Figure Rules for Glassware. Reading a Meniscus. Meniscus and Parallax.

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## Volume determination and density

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1. Lab 3 Volume determination and density

2. Outline • Reading a meniscus • Volume determination and Significant Figures • Mathematic treatment of data • Safety Concerns • Next Assignment • Summary of Significant Figure Rules for Glassware

3. Reading a Meniscus • Meniscus and Parallax

4. Reading and Recording Volumes • We use significant figures to indicate the accuracy and precision of glassware. • Significant figures for graduated glassware are determined differently from those of non-graduated glassware. • You will need to correctly apply the following rules every time you read a volume from glassware, or use a volume in a calculation, in order to appropriately incorporate the precision of the volume into the calculation.

5. Significant Figures: Volumetric Glassware • Use the tolerance table on p. 98 to determine glassware tolerance, unless it is printed on the glassware. • For example: • The 50 mL volumetric flask has a tolerance of ± 0.05 mL. Whenever you use your 50 mL volumetric flask, you will always report two zeros after the decimal, i.e. 50.00 mL.

6. Volumetric Flask When this volumetric flask is filled to the calibration mark, what volume should be reported?

7. Volumetric Pipet When this pipet is used to dispense solution, what volume should be reported?

8. Volumetric Pipet When this pipet is used to dispense solution, what volume should be reported? And to which line should the pipet be filled?

9. Significant Figures: Graduated Glassware • Look at the glassware in question. • Find the smallest graduation. • Report your volume to the closest 10% of the smallest graduation.

10. Reading Graduated Glassware

11. Reading Graduated Glassware

12. Reading Graduated Glassware

13. Reading Graduated Glassware

14. Reading Graduated Glassware

15. Reading Graduated Glassware

16. Smallest Graduation • A. Calculate major graduation – major graduation • B. Determine the number of spaces between two major graduations • Smallest Graduation = A / B

17. Reading Graduated Cylinders What volume should be reported?

18. Reading Graduated Cylinders • Smallest graduation: 0.2 mL • 10% value: 0.02 mL • Volume to the closest 10% of the SG: 6.62 mL

19. Reading Graduated Cylinders What volume should be reported?

20. Reading Graduated Cylinders • Smallest graduation: 5 mL • 10% value: 0.5 mL • Volume to the closest 10% of the SG: 293.5 mL

21. Reading Graduated Cylinders What volume should be reported?

22. Reading Graduated Cylinders • Smallest graduation: 0.5 mL • 10% value: 0.05 mL • Volume to the closest 10% of the SG: 11.50 mL

23. Reading Burets What volume should be reported?

24. Reading Burets • Smallest graduation: 0.1 mL • 10% value: 0.01 mL • Volume to the closest 10% of the SG: 41.15 mL

25. Reading Burets What volume should be reported?

26. Reading Burets • Smallest graduation: 0.1 mL • 10% value: 0.01 mL • Volume to the closest 10% of the SG: 15.48 mL

27. Density • Mass of a substance per unit volume. • Units for today is g/mL. • Density changes with changing temperature. • As a result, volume changes (but mass stays constant unless you spill).

28. Mathematical Treatment of Data % Error = x 100%

29. Example of Volume Calculation • Dry mass of a 50 mL beaker: 49.2345g • Exactly 10.00 mL of water is transferred from a 10 mL graduated cylinder into a 50 mL beaker. • Mass of the 50 mL beaker with 10.00 mL of water: 59.2201g • Mass of 10 mL water: 9.9856g • Volume read: 10.00 mL (why 2 digits of precision?)

30. Example of Volume Calculation • Water temperature: 21.2 ºC • Density at this temperature (p. 100): 0.9979513 g/mL • Volume Calculation:

31. % Error Calculation

32. Safety Concerns • Reagent: • Food coloring • Health Considerations: • Avoid contact with skin and eyes. • Do not inhale vapor or spray. • Do not ingest.

33. Lab 4 Reminder • Complete and submit your pre-lab questions by the deadline. • Study for the quiz. • Submit your Lab 3 Report at the start of next week’s lab.

34. Use these rules for “Volume Read”

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