THE FIRST WORLD WAR 1914-1918
Chapter 23: World War I • World War I Begins • The United States Tries to Remain Neutral • The Nation Goes to War • Wilson Fights for Peace
Militarism Assassination Nationalism Causes Of WWI Imperialism Alliance System
1. NATIONALISM • A devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation. (Love of your Country) • This led to competition and rivalries among nations and ethnic groups were no longer protected. • Russia and Austria-Hungary disagreed over the treatment of Serbs in central Europe
2. IMPERIALISM • Imperialism-Ambition of a powerful nation to dominate the political, economic, and cultural affairs of another nation or region • Seizure of a weaker country by a stronger one
IMPERIALISM • Colonies supplied European nations with raw materials and provided markets for manufactured goods • As Germany industrialized it competed directly with France and Britain • Major European countries also competed for land in Africa
3. MILITARISM • Militarism—policy of glorifying military power, preparing an army • The development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy.
MILITARISM • Empires had to be defended and European nations increased military spending enormously in the late 19th and early 20th century • By 1890 the strongest nation militarily in Europe was Germany • Germany had a strong army and built up a navy to rival England’s fleet • France, Italy, Japan and the United States quickly joined in the naval buildup
Battleships were being stockpiled by European nations, Japan and America in the late 19th and early 20th century
4. ALLIANCE SYSTEM • Members of alliances attack a nation if one of their Allies or themselves are attacked. • By 1907 there were two major defense alliances in Europe • The Triple Entente, later known as the Allies - France, Great Britain, and Russia • The Triple Alliance, later known as the Central Powers - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire
5. ASSASSINATION • Archduke Franz Ferdinand: • Heir to Austrian-Hungarian throne. • June 28, 1914 • Assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist (Gavrilo Princip)
Balkan Region of Europe • The Balkan region was considered “the powder keg of Europe” due to competing interests in the area • Russia wanted access to the Mediterranean Sea • Germany wanted a rail link to the Ottoman Empire • Austria-Hungary, which had taken control of Bosnia in 1878, accused Serbia of subverting its rule over Bosnia The Archduke is assassinated in Sarajevo in June 1914
Bosnian Crisis of 1908Another conflict was incited by the Austria-Hungarian annexation of the former Turkish province of Bosnia in 1908. The Greater Serbian movement had as an object the acquisition of Slavic Bosnia, so Serbia threatened war on Austria-Hungary. Russia had pledged their support to Serbia, so they began to mobilize, which caused Germany, allied with Austria-Hungary, to threaten war on Russia. The beginning of World War I was postponed when Russia backed down, but relations between Austria- Hungary and Serbia were greatly strained.
Ultimatum- list of demands, that if not met will lead to serious consequences • Demands: • Serbian government would condemn all propaganda against Austria- Hungary and suppress publication and societies that opposed Austria- Hungary • Serbia would ban from its schools books and teachers who did not favor Austria- Hungary. • Serbia would dismiss any officials who had promoted propaganda against Austria-Hungary • Austro-Hungarian officials would participate in the proceedings against those accused of the crime at Sarajevo. • It Serbia didn’t agree Austria-Hungary would resort to military action.
Alliance System kicks in • Small conflict escalates to World War • Austria-Hungary assumed it would achieve a quick victory declared war on Serbia on July 28th after the time limit of the ultimatum expired (Russia moves troops towards Austria/German border) • August 1, 1914 Germany declared War on Russia. • August 3, 1914 Germany declared war on France figuring they would help Russia
Section 2: The United States Tries to Remain Neutral • President Wilson • “He kept us out of war” • We favor the allies
America & the War • Americans did not want to join a war over 3,000 miles away. • Most Americans had ties in Europe, they still had relatives there. • Germany’s style of attacking made Americans lean towards the Allies
America (con’t) • America’s economy was tied more with the Allies’ nations than the Central Powers nations. • The U.S. had a labor shortage during the war. • The U.S. sent more goods to the Allies’ side than the Central Powers’ side.
Germany Invades Belgium • August 3, 1914 – Germany invades Belgium in order to reach France quickly. • Great Britain declared war on Germany for invading their ally and also on Austria-Hungary. WWI HAS BEGUN !!!!
THE FIGHTING BEGINS Schlieffen Plan-German plan to defeat France, then fight Russia This plan called for a quick strike through Belgium to Paris, France, then, Germany would attack Russia • The plan was designed to prevent a two-front war for Germany The Schliefflen Plan
THE WAR BECOMES A STALEMATE • Unable to save Belgium, the Allies retreated to the Marne River in France where they halted the German advance in September of 1914 • Both sides dug in for a long siege • By the spring of 1915, two parallel systems of deep trenches crossed France from Belgium to Switzerland • Between enemy trenches was “no man’s land” – an area pockmarked with shell craters and filled with barbed wire British soldiers standing in mud
During the First Battle of the Somme - which began July 1, 1916 and lasted until mid-November – the British suffered 60,000 casualties the first day • Final casualties for the First Battle of the Somme totaled 1.2 million, yet only 7 miles of ground was gained • This bloody trench warfare, in which armies fought for mere yards of ground, lasted for three years FIRST BATTLE OF THE SOMME Gas attacks were common features of trench life and often caused blindness and lung disease
Innovations in Warfare • Industrialized war (mass production) • Machine gun- rapid firing bullets • Trenches were dug and used • 1916 tank was 1st introduced by British. Armored vehicle/ mounted guns • Airplane- used to watch troop movements and drop bombs. • Germany was 1st to introduce submarines (U-Boats) • Germany also used poison gas
A British trench - the soldier on the right is on guard - the others are resting.
THE WAR HITS HOME • During the first two years of the war, America was providing (selling) the allied forces dynamite, cannon powder, submarines, copper wire and tubing and other war material • Both the Germans and British imposed naval blockades on each other • The Germans usedU-boats (submarines) to prevent shipments to the North Atlantic • Any ship found in the waters around Britain would be sunk German U-boat 1919
THE LUSITANIA DISASTER • United States involvement in World War I was hastened by the Lusitania disaster • The Lusitania was a British passenger liner that carried 1,198 persons on a fateful trip on May 7, 1915 • A German U-boat sank the British passenger liner killing all aboard including 128 American tourists • The Germans claimed the ship was carrying Allied ammunition • Americans were outraged and public opinion turned against Germany and the Central Powers May 7, 1915
Unrestricted Naval Warfare • Contraband- goods forbidden by law to be imported or exported; smuggled merchandise • British Blockade – “Hunger Blockade” • Sussex Pledge- a pledge issued by the Germans in 1916, after the sinking of the Sussex, promising that no more merchant ships would be sunk without warning
U.S. Neutrality Tested • Wilson Reelected • Eastern Front-site of main fighting along the German-Russian border • Russia crumbles • Bolshevik Revolution • Brest-Litovsk Treaty- Russian Peace Treaty with Germany in 1918
Zimmerman Note • A telegram that was intercepted by the U.S. • The telegram was from Germany to Mexico. • Germany’s leader told Mexico that if Mexico invaded the U.S., that they (Germany) would help them. • Pres. Wilson and Congress agreed to join the war.