Global Trade WHII.5
Standard WHII.5 • You will be able to describe… • and located the Ottoman Empire • India, coastal trade, and the Mughal Empire • East Asia, including China & Japanese shogunate • Africa and its global trade involvment • the growth of European nations, Commercian Revolution and mercantilism
I. Ottoman Empire • The Ottoman Empire emerged as a political and economic power following the conquest of Constantinople (the capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire).
I. Ottoman Empire • The Ottomans also brought much of the Muslim territory in Southwest Asia and North Africa under their rule.
I. Ottoman Empire • The Ottoman Empire also spread into the Balkan Peninsula and Eastern Europe, and brought the Islamic religion with them. • This planted the seeds for many modern conflicts between Christians and Muslims.
I. Ottoman Empire • Original Location of the Ottoman Empire • Asia Minor • Modern-day Turkey
I. Ottoman Empire • Expansion & extent of Ottoman Empire • Southwest Asia • Southeastern Europe • Balkan Peninsula • North Africa
I. Ottoman Empire • Development of the Ottoman Empire • Capital at Constantinople → renamed Istanbul • Islamic religion as unifying force that accepted other religions • Trade in coffee & ceramics
II. The Mughal Empire • Descendants of the Mongols, the Muslim Mughal (Mogul) rulers established an empire in northern India. • The Mughal empire traded with European nations.
II. The Mughal Empire • Although India was originally Hindu, the Mughal invasion introduced Islam to the region. • The Taj Mahal is an example of how Islam impacted India’s architecture.
II. The Mughal Empire • Location of the Mughal Empire • North India
II. The Mughal Empire • Contributions of the Mughal rulers • Spread of Islam into India • Art & architecture – Taj Mahal • Arrival of European trading outposts • Influence of Indian textiles on British textile industry
II. The Mughal Empire • Trade with European nations • Portugal, England and the Netherlands competed for Indian Ocean trade by establishing coastal ports on the Indian sub-continent.
III. China & Japan • China & Japan sought to limit the influence and activities of European merchants. • China & Japan remained relatively isolated from the rest of the world for the next 400 years.
III. China & Japan • China • Creation of foreign enclaves to control trade • Imperial policy of controlling foreign influences & trade • Increase in European demand for Chinese goods
III. China & Japan • Japan • Government → powerless emperor ruled by a military leader (shogun) • Shinto was the major religion of Japan • Adopted a policy of isolation to limit foreign influence
IV. Africa • The exportation of slaves and demand for imported goods began to alter traditional patters in Africa.
IV. Africa • African Exports: • Slaves (triangular trade – Middle Passage) • Raw materials • African Imports: • Manufactured goods from Europe, Asia and the Americas • New food products (corn, peanuts)
V. Economics • European maritime nations competed for overseas markets, colonies and resources, creating new economic practices, such as mercantilism, linking European nations with their colonies.
V. Economics • Mercantilism • An economic practice adopted by European colonial powers in an effort to become self-sufficient • Based on the theory that colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country
V. Economics • Commercial Revolution • European maritime nations competed for overseas markets, colonies and resources • A new economic system emerged: • New money & banking systems were created • Economic practices such as mercantilism evolved • Colonial economies were limited by the economic needs of the mother country