CHAPTER 2 POPULATION
WHY IS POPULATION IMPORTANT? • Helps explain issues in human geography • It’s connected to everything!!!! (economics, health, politics….)
CASE STUDY: INDIA • Read the case study on p. 46 and answer the following: • Give 2 reasons people in India are having many children 2. Where do most people in India live? 3. How does the age of India’s population negatively affect it’s growing wealth?
ISSUE #1 Where is the World’s Population Distributed?
Geographers look at two properties to understand global population distribution…. CONCENTRATION (which areas are clustered, which are sparse? ) DENSITY Different ways of measuring this: Arithmetic, Physiological, Agricultural 2/3of the world’s population lives in East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Western Europe
World Population Cartogram Fig. 2-1: This cartogram displays countries by the size of their population rather than their land area.(Only countries with 50 million or more people are named.) World Growth worldmapper
ARITHMETIC • Total number of people divided by total land area (population density) • Helps geographers compare populations of different parts of the world (helps understand “where”, people live, but not “why” there is uneven distribution
PHYSIOLOGICAL • Number of people supported by a unit area of arable land • Helps us understand the capacity of land to support the population • The higher the PD, the more pressure on the land to produce enough food
AGRICULTURAL • Ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land • Helps explain economic differences • MDCs have lower AD (why? Benefits?)
LIST 3 PHYSICAL SIMILARITIES THE MOST POPULATED REGIONS SHARE… • Live near ocean and/or river w/ easy access to a river 2. Live in low-lying areas 3. Fertile soil 4. Temperate climate 5. All in the NH, between 10*N and 55*N - exception?
ISSUE #2 Where has the World’s Population Increased?
IMPORTANT MEASUREMENTS Crude Birth Rate Crude Death Rate Natural Increase Rate
MEASURING NIR • just subtract CDR from CBR ex. CBR = 20 (20 per 1,000) CDR = 5 (5 per 1,000) - therefore the NIR = 15 or 1.5 % (remember, it’s out of 1,000, not 100) --- know the global trend over the past 60 years (p.53)
TRUE/FALSE? • As NIR decreases, the overall population automatically decreases as well.
TRUE/FALSE? • As NIR decreases, the overall population automatically decreases as well. FALSE – see graph on p.52
WHERE IS NIR INCREASING? • Almost all growth in NIR is clustered in LDCs • It is negative in Europe * What are the implications of this?
Provide and example/explanation of how a country’s NIR could equal 1.6%. (CBR is 100 and CDR is 84)
True/False – the NIR peaked in the 1960s and then decreased during the late 20th century. (True)
True/False – As the NIR decreased the overall population must also decrease. (False)
True/False – The nations with the highest NIR tend to also be the same as those with high CBRs and TFRs. (True)
If a nation has a very high life expectancy would you expect it to most likely have a high or low infant mortality rate? (low)
In general, the IMR reflects a nation’s ___________________ (health care system)
True/False – the combined CDR for LDCs is actually lower than that of MDCs. (True)
Which of the following has the highest CBR? sub-Saharan Africa Europe East Asia (sub-Saharan Africa)
Which of the following has the lowest CDR? sub-Saharan Africa Europe South America (South America)
Which of the following has the highest NIR? sub-Saharan Africa North America South Asia (sub-Saharan Africa)
Which of the following has the highest TFR? Middle East Europe North America (Middle East)
Which of the following has the lowest IMR? North America Southeast Asia South America (North America)
ISSUE #3 Why is Population Increasing at Different Rates in Different Countries?
1. China 2. India 3. U.S. 4. Indonesia 5. Brazil 6. Pakistan 7. Bangladesh 8. Nigeria 9. Russia 10. Japan
List what you think will be the 10 most populated countries in the world in the year 2050
1. India 2. China 3. U.S. 4. Pakistan 5. Nigeria 6. Indonesia 7. Bangladesh 8. Brazil 9. Ethiopia 10. Democratic Republic of the Congo
WORLD POPULATION 2010 2050 1. India 2. China 3. U.S. 4. Pakistan 5. Nigeria 6. Indonesia 7. Bangladesh 8. Brazil 9. Ethiopia 10. Democratic Republic of the Congo • 1. China • 2. India • 3. U.S. • 4. Indonesia • 5. Brazil • 6. Pakistan • 7. Bangladesh • 8. Nigeria • 9. Russia • 10. Japan PDS
World Population Growth1950 - 2005 Fig. 2-6: Total world population increased from 2.5 to over 6 billion in slightly over 50 years. The natural increase rate peaked in the early 1960s and has declined since, but the number of people added each year did not peak until 1990.
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION • A process of change in a society’s population • This transition will vary in different places, at different times • Process has different stages, every country is either 2,3, or 4
STAGE 1: LOW GROWTH • Characterizes most of humanity throughout Earth’s history • NIR = 0 (roughly); high CBR and CDR • Agricultural revolution led to population increase (8000 BC) but unreliable food supply kept societies in stage 1 until mid-1700s
STAGE 2: HIGH GROWTH • After 1750 world population grew MUCH faster • CDR plummets and CBR remains about the same (NIR goes way up because the gap between CDR and CBR is high) • industrial revolution (mid-1700s) spurred this change and pushed some countries into stage 2 • Countries in Europe and NA entered S2 in about 1800, many in Asia and Africa didn’t get there until 1950 (why? – medical revolution)
STAGE 3: MODERATE GROWTH • CBR drops sharply and CDR falls, but at a much slower rate than in S2 (NIR increases but only moderately because the gap between CBR and CDR narrows) • European and NA countries entered S3 in the first half of the 20th century • Most Asian and LA countries moved there recently, most African countries are still in S2 • People choose to have fewer children (social behavior changes) • ---read p.59
STAGE 4: LOW GROWTH • CBR declines until it equals CDR (NIR = 0) • Also called zero population growth (TFR results in a lack of change in total population) • Most European countries are here • Social changes explain the change from S3 to S4 (p.60)
The Demographic Transition Fig. 2-13: The demographic transition consists of four stages, which move from high birth and death rates, to declines first in death rates then in birth rates, and finally to a stage of low birth and death rates. Population growth is most rapid in the second stage.
TYPE 2 • List the factors that push a society from stage 1 to stage 2, stage 2 to stage 3, and stage 3 to stage 4.
TYPE 2 • List the factors that push a society from stage 1 to stage 2, stage 2 to stage 3, and stage 3 to stage 4. • Industrial rev. and medical rev. - push from 1 to 2 b. People decide to have fewer children – push from 2 to 3 (lower IMR, economic changes such as not working on farms and smaller living spaces in urban settings) c. People have even fewer children due to things such as ,more women in the workforce, more leisure, time, more use on birth control … - push from 3 to 4
Which stage am I? 1. CBR and CDR are about the same, have good technology, food supply and health care • Most of human history has been in my stage • CBR stays relatively the same as it was in the previous stage, but CDR plummets • NIR increases, but moderately, as gap between CDR and CBR narrows
Which stage am I? • CBR and CDR are about the same, have good technology, food supply and health care ; zero population growth (Stage 4) • Most of human history has been in my stage (Stage 1) 3. CBR stays relatively the same as it was in the previous stage, but CDR plummets (Stage 2) • NIR increases, but moderately, as gap between CDR and CBR narrows; CBR drops sharply (Stage 3)
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION • AND • POPULATION PYRAMIDS • make sure you know dependency ratio, sex ratio and the examples of countries in each stage and what their pyramid looks like • as a nation moves through the stages the % of elderly people increases (explains why nations in stages 3 and 4, which are MDCs, have higher CDRs than LDCs)
WHAT DOES A PYRAMID TELL US? • Read p.62 and look at examples on p.63 Pay attention to me, I have lots to tell you about my community!