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UNC Charlotte Writing Resources Center

UNC Charlotte Writing Resources Center

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UNC Charlotte Writing Resources Center

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  1. APA Documentation UNC Charlotte Writing Resources Center

  2. Writing Resources Center (WRC) Locations: Cameron 125 Atkins T1 (by Peet’s) Cone 268 Center City 714 Appointments: writing.uncc.edu/writing-resources- center/schedule-appointment uncc.mywconline.com Website: writing.uncc.edu/writing-resources-center Email: wrchelp@uncc.edu Phone: 704.687.1899

  3. Overview • The workshop will cover the essentials of the American Psychological Association (APA) documentation style, including: • understanding documentation • avoiding plagiarism • paraphrasing source material • integrating research information • learning to cite sources within the text • preparing a reference section

  4. Documentation Documentation refers to a system of crediting people and institutions who created the information that writers use for their own purposes. Credit is required whether or not a person plans to publish the material. Writers should document sources that are used for research papers, oral presentations, or Internet- or electronic-based pursuits (e.g., websites, blogs, or PowerPoint slides).

  5. Documentation Why do we document sources in academic work?

  6. Documentation • We use the work of others to: • prove credibility as a researcher • demonstrate fairness through consulting multiple points of view • provide background for research • place research in the context of others’ work • help readers follow the progression of ideas • reveal how new ideas relate to established ones • show readers where to locate more information on the subject

  7. Documentation What materials require documentation?

  8. Documentation • Materials that require citation include: • quotations • paraphrases • summaries • claims that are arguable • facts that are not widely known

  9. Documentation • Materials that donot require citation include: • common knowledge • ideas available in a variety of sources • finding from your own primary or field research

  10. Plagiarism What is plagiarism? Does plagiarism apply only to print material?

  11. Plagiarism • Plagiarism occurs when a writer deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or original material without acknowledging its source. • Plagiarism applies to texts published in print or online, to manuscripts, to broadcasts, and to the work of other students.

  12. Avoiding Plagiarism How do writers use source material in ways that avoid plagiarism?

  13. Avoiding Plagiarism Aside from documenting sources, writers avoid plagiarism in the manner that they incorporate information from resources into their own writing. The most common ways to use others’ information are through direct quotations, paraphrases, and summaries.

  14. Avoiding Plagiarism Let’s define a: • Direct quotation • Paraphrase • Summary

  15. Avoiding Plagiarism Direct Quotations: Use the original source’s language verbatim (word for word) and include quotation marks as well as an in-text citation. Printsource: “A traffic ticket is a public document because it is: (a) a document issued by a public employee during the conduct of public business, (b) a record stored in a government database, and (c) an exhibit in a legal proceeding” (Harrington, 2011, p. 7). Internetsource: “A traffic ticket is a public document because it is: (a) a document issued by a public employee during the conduct of public business, (b) a record stored in a government database, and (c) an exhibit in a legal proceeding” (Harrington, 2011, para. 3). Note that a page or paragraph number appears in the citation.

  16. Avoiding Plagiarism • Paraphrases and Summaries: Express the ideas of the original source in the writer’s own words and sentence patterns. Simply changing a few words or switching the order of elements in the passage doesnot constitute a paraphrase or summary. • Paraphrases may condense only a few sentences of the source. • Summaries usually condense one or more paragraphs.

  17. Paraphrasing Example Original Source: “The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide of immigrants. With industry came urbanization, the growth of large cities (like Fall River, Massachusetts, where the Bordens lived), which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade.” Williams, J. G., Smithburn, E., & Peterson, M.J. (Eds.) (1980). Lizzie Borden: A Case Book of Family and Crime in the 1890s. Bloomington, IN: TIS Publications.

  18. Paraphrasing Example Here’s the quote presented as a paraphrase. Is it acceptable? Why or why not? The increase of industry, the growth of cities, and the explosion of the population were three large factors of nineteenth century America. As steam-driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the country, they changed farm hands into factory workers and provided jobs for the large wave of immigrants. With industry came the growth of large cities like Fall River where the Bordens lived, which turned into centers of commerce and trade as well as production.

  19. Paraphrasing Example An unacceptable paraphrase too closely resembles the original wording and structure, so this was not a viable option to the quote. The increase of industry, the growth of cities, and the explosion of the population were three large factors of nineteenth century America. As steam-driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the country, they changed farm hands into factory workers and provided jobs for the large wave of immigrants. With industry came the growth of large cities like Fall River where the Bordens lived, which turned into centers of commerce and trade as well as production.

  20. Paraphrasing Example Acceptable Paraphrase According to Williams, Smithburn, and Peterson(1980), Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of northeastern industrial cities of the nineteenth century. Steam-powered production had shifted labor from agriculture to manufacturing, and as immigrants arrived in the U.S., they found work in these new factories. As a result, populations grew, and large urban areas arose. Fall River was one of these manufacturing and commercial centers. Note that the citation appears within the text, which offers a viable alternative for in-text citations. Also, in APA, page and paragraph numbers do not appear in citations for paraphrases or summaries.

  21. Paraphrase What makes a strong paraphrase? • Uses your own words and writing style. • Expresses your perspective about the information and why it belongs in your paper. • Demonstrates why you think the information. • Includes a citation.

  22. Integrating Information Blending in source material rather than just plopping information into the text helps to establish flow. Consider two examples involving a direct quotation. Plopped Version People did not know much about the town. “The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide of immigrants. With industry came urbanization, the growth of large cities (like Fall River, Massachusetts, where the Bordens lived), which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade” (Williams, 1980, n. p.).

  23. Integrating Information Blended Version Until 1892, most people thought of Fall River, Massachusetts as a sleepy, rural hamlet. They did not realize the extent that “[t]he rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide of immigrants. With industry came urbanization, the growth of large cities …, which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade” (Williams, 1980, n. p.). If citizens had known about Fall River’s transformation, then perhaps the Lizzie Borden murders would not have seemed as unbelievably shocking.

  24. Integrating Information How is the blended version better?

  25. Integrating Information Plopped Version • Limited information leading into the quotation • Lacked text appears after the quote to show its relevance to the topic

  26. Integrating Information • Blended Version • Leads readers into the quotation and demonstrates how the quote relates to the topic (Oreo Technique). • Alters the quote minimally, which assists flow. • Relates the quote to the topic (or explains the quote).

  27. Integrating Information What does it mean to explain the quote?

  28. Integrating Information The practice of relating a quotation to the topic is also referred to as explaining the quote. It doesnot paraphrase the quotation. If the writer can paraphrase the quote, then that would prove a better option. A paper needs the writer’s own voice to give it authority, so a minimum number of direct quotations should appear in the paper.

  29. In-text Citations APA primarily cites information within the text in two formats. One places the author’s name and year of publication parenthetically at the end of the sentence. The other includes this information as part of the sentence. To increase the paper’s flow, it’s best to use a mix of the two formats.

  30. In-text Citations Option 1 Paraphrase While sunshine laws exist in North Carolina, research determined that the general public has difficulty accessing government documents (Harrington, 2011). DirectQuotation “While sunshine laws exist in North Carolina, research determined that the general public has difficulty accessing government documents” (Harrington, 2011, p. 19).

  31. In-text Citations Option 2 Paraphrase While sunshine laws exist in North Carolina, Harrington’s (2011) research determined that the general public has difficulty accessing government documents. DirectQuotation “While sunshine laws exist in North Carolina, Harrington’s (2011) research determined that the general public has difficulty accessing government documents” (p. 19).

  32. In-text Citations Do writers need to cite every sentence? Would the paper’s flow appear choppy? Is there an alternative that avoids plagiarism, cites sources, and enhances flow?

  33. In-text Citations Bookending Sources For instances when multiple sentences in the paper clearly include information from the same source, “bookending” the citations is a better alternative than citing each sentence individually. Harrington (2011) indicated that what are considered public documents and what governments readily provide to citizens remains in dispute. Governing bodies frequently claim that drafts and white papers should not be available for public inspection because they remain unfinished. However, even draft reports from an outside consultant should be considered public because they are being created by someone paid with public funds (Harrington, 2011).

  34. Citations & References How are the in-text citations related to the reference section of a paper?

  35. Reference Section Citations form a shorthand that points to the entries of the reference section. Reference entries contain complete bibliographic information for each source cited in the main text. Note: Every citation in the text must lead to a reference entry; every reference entry must be connected to an in-text citation.

  36. References Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.

  37. References U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Heath, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from http:// ww.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/ lung/asthma_sch.pdf VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary ofpsychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  38. Writing Resources Center (WRC) Locations: Cameron 125 Atkins T1 (by Peet’s) Cone 268 Center City 714 Appointments: writing.uncc.edu/writing-resources- center/schedule-appointment uncc.mywconline.com Website: writing.uncc.edu/writing-resources-center Email: wrchelp@uncc.edu Phone: 704.687.1899