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Continuity and One-sided Limits. A function f is continuous at x = c if there is no interruption in the graph at c The graph is unbroken at c , with no holes, jumps, or gaps A function is continuous at c if f(c) is defined lim f(x) exists lim f(x) = f(c). x c. x c.

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## Continuity and One-sided Limits

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**Continuity and One-sided Limits**• A function f is continuous at x = c if there is no interruption in the graph at c • The graph is unbroken at c, with no holes, jumps, or gaps • A function is continuous at c if • f(c) is defined • lim f(x) exists • lim f(x) = f(c) x c x c**Continuity and One-sided Limits**• A function f is continuous on the open interval (a, b), if it is continuous at each point in the open interval • A function that is continuous on the open interval (-∞,∞) is called everywhere continuous • If a function f is not continuous at x = c then it is said to have a discontinuity at c • A discontinuity at c is removable if f can be made continuous by appropriately defining or redefining f(c) • A discontinuity at c is nonremovable if f cannot be made continuous by appropriately defining or redefining f(c)**Continuity and One-sided Limits**• Which graphs below show a removable discontinuity?**Continuity and One-sided Limits**• Which of these functions are continuous?**Continuity and One-sided Limits**• A one-sided limit is the limit of a function f(x) as x approaches c from just the left or just the right • lim f(x) = L is the limit as x approaches c from values greater than c • lim f(x) = L is the limit as x approaches c from values less than c • One-sided limits can be useful when finding limits of functions involving radicals Theorem 1.10 Existence of a Limit If f is a function and c and L are real numbers, then lim f(x) = L if and only if lim f(x) = L and lim f(x) = L x c+ x c– x c x c– x c+**Continuity and One-sided Limits**• If a function f is continuous on the open interval (a, b), and lim f(x) = f(a) and lim f(x) = f(b), then the function is continuous on the closed interval [a, b] • The function is said to be continuous from the right at a and continuous from the left at b x a+ x b–**Continuity and One-sided Limits**Theorem 1.11 Properties of Continuity If b is a real number and f and g are functions that are continuous at c, then the following functions are also continuous at c • Scalar multiple: bf • Sum or difference: f ± g • Product: f · g • Quotient: f/g provided that g(c) ≠ 0**Continuity and One-sided Limits**• These properties imply that • Polynomial functions are continuous at every real number • Rational, radical, and trigonometric functions are continuous at every number in their domain Theorem 1.12 Continuity of Composite Functions If g is continuous at c and f is continuous at g(c), then the composite function f◦g(x) = f(g(x)) is continuous at c**Intermediate Value Theorem**Theorem 1.13 Intermediate Value Theorem If f is continuous on the closed interval [a, b], f(a) ≠ f(b), and k is any real number between f(a) and f(b), then there is at least one number c in [a, b] such that f(c) = k • This means that for a continuous function f, if x takes on all values between a and b, then f(x) must take on all values between f(a) and f(b) • The Intermediate Value Theorem is an existence theorem, it tells us that c exists, but not its value**Intermediate Value Theorem**• The Intermediate Value Theorem guarantees that for a continuous function f there is at least one number c in the closed interval [a, b] such that f(c) = k • It’s possible that there may be more than one number cin [a, b], such that f(c) = k • If f is not continuous theintermediate value theorem does not apply, and there may be no number c in [a, b]such that f(c) = k**Intermediate Value Theorem**• The Intermediate Value Theorem can be used to find the zeros of a function that is continuous on a closed interval • If f is continuous on [a, b] andf(a) and f(b) have different signs, then there must be some value cin [a, b], such that f(c) = 0 • This gives the bisection method for approximating the real zeros of a continuous function

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