Natural Resources Unit One - Chapter Three
Natural Resources • Natural resources – materials God has provided for our use
Energy Resources • Renewable resources – resources that can be replaced by natural means in a relatively short amount of time • Nonrenewable resources – resources that cannot be easily replaced
Energy Resources – Nonrenewable - Fossil Fuels • Fossil fuels – made from the remains of plants and animals that are buried quickly • Three examples of fossil fuels that provide most of the energy we use • Petroleum • Natural Gas • Coal
Energy Resources – Fossil Fuels – Petroleum • Petroleum – the liquid form of fossil fuel • Prudhoe Bay Field – the largest known oil field and one of the biggest oil finds in the U.S.A. • Crude oil – oil pumped from wells • Refinery – a factory that separates crude oil into different products • Petrochemicals – chemicals produced from oil • Disadvantages of petroleum • The use of crude oil products can cause pollution. • Oil spills can occur at oil wells and during transportation.
Energy Resources – Fossil Fuels – Natural Gas • Natural gas – found in a gaseous state, close to deposits of oil • Much cleaner to burn than oil because it does not contain sulfur • Natural gas does not have an odor, color or taste
Energy Resources – Fossil Fuels – Coal • Coal – made from plant material that is quickly buried • Grades of coal • Anthracite – best and cleanest grade of coal • Bituminous – most common type of coal • Lignite – must be dried out before it can be burned • Disadvantages of burning coal • Produces soot and sulfur gases
Energy Resources –Nonrenewable - Nuclear Energy • Does not use a fossil fuel, but depends on a nonrenewable resource (mineral) called uranium • Uranium is used in nuclear reactors to produce electricity and power • The nuclear plant in Chernobyl suffered a reactor meltdown and spread pollution for hundreds of miles. • Problems of nuclear energy • The storage of nuclear energy • The used fuel needs special containment and burial to keep it from harming the environment
Energy Resources – Renewable Energy • Renewable resources – sources of energy that can be replaced by natural means
Energy Resources – Renewable Energy – Hydroelectric Energy • Before it was used to power electricity, water powered wheels for mills that ground grain • Reservoirs – holding areas that help control the flow of water • Hydroelectric energy – produced as water flows from the reservoirs and turns turbines. The turning of the turbines generates electricity. • Advantages of hydroelectric energy • Reservoirs serve as recreational lakes • Reservoirs provide water for irrigation • Disadvantages of hydroelectric energy • Reservoirs require large flooded land areas • Reservoirs require a dam be built across a major river
Energy Resources – Renewable Energy – Hydroelectric Energy • Bible Integration • Some resources are renewable. Christians need to be renewed daily through Bible study, prayer, and dependence on the Holy Spirit.
Energy Resources – Renewable Energy – Geothermal Energy • Geothermal energy – uses heat from the earth to produce steam; no fuel is consumed • Advantages of geothermal energy • Geothermal energy plants are fairly inexpensive to build and operate • Geothermal energy plants do not produce air pollution or radioactive hazards • Disadvantages of geothermal energy • Once heat is produced, water pollutants must be disposed of properly • Geothermal energy plants must be close to areas of hot magma
Energy Resources – Renewable Energy – Wind Energy • Windmills have long been used to turn wheels to grind grain. • Wind energy – air movements that generate electrical energy • Advantages of wind energy • Windmills do not cause pollution • Windmills require very little maintenance • Disadvantages of wind energy • Windmills require a steady wind • The energy produced from a windmill cannot be stored • Windmills take up a lot of space (require large land areas)
Energy Resources – Renewable Energy – Solar Energy • Solar energy – using the Sun’s energy to power and heat things • High temperatures produce the steam needed to turn a turbine. • Solar field – a solar collection area • Advantages of solar energy • A solar field does not produce pollution • A solar field uses little water • Disadvantages of solar energy • The solar collection cells are expensive • A large amount of land is required • Solar power collection cannot work after sunset
Other Resources – Minerals • Mineral – a solid substance found naturally in Earth’s surface; has never been a living organism • Veins – concentrated areas of specific minerals • Ores – materials with usable amounts of metal in them • Smelting – the process used to separate metal from other materials; heating metal to purify it
Other Resources – Minerals – Precious Metals • Precious metals – rare metals • Gold • Malleable – soft and shapeable • Uses – coins, jewelry, dentistry, glassmaking, medicine • Silver • Metal that is easily scratched and tarnished • Uses – money, jewelry, electrical parts, ink, glass, mirrors, medicines, making and processing photographic film
Other Resources – Minerals – Other Metals • Copper • One of copper’s greatest values is that it is a good conductor of electricity • Uses – money, wiring, and plumbing • Iron • Uses – tools, weapons, pans, paints, appliances, steel • Magnets are attracted to this type of metal • Aluminum • Uses – foil, cars, airplanes, soda cans • Most abundant metal in earth
Other Resources – Soil – Conservation • Farmers have learned to rotate crops to help maintain soil fertility. Some may plant corn one year and beans the next year. If farmers plant the same crop year after year, the soil may become unproductive. • Fallow – a period of rest for a field to replenish the nutrients in the soil • Bible Integration – God established the seventh day as a day of rest and worship. • Ground cover – a low-growing crop that prevents soil erosion in unused fields • Contour plowing – a method used to prevent crops and soil from washing away
Other Resources – Soil – Modern Farms • Large farms sometimes use modern technology such as satellites and the Global Positioning System (GPS). • The GPS allows farmers to irrigate and fertilize only the areas of the field that need it, rather than the whole field.
Other Resources – Water • Three fourths (3/4) of the earth’s surface is covered by water. • Hydrosphere – all of Earth’s water • Water cycle – the path water takes as it travels from land to sky and back to land
Other Resources – Water Condensation Precipitation Transpiration – water is released by plants as they carry on photosynthesis Evaporation Surface Water Ocean Ground Water
Other Resources – Water – Oceans • Oceans contain most of Earth’s water. • Oceans are a key factor in providing fresh water for us. • Saline – salty; oceans are salty due to the dissolved minerals and salts that are left behind • Desalination facilities – facilities that are able to remove the salts and other minerals from ocean water • Oceans play a key role in the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle. • Phytoplankton – tiny ocean plants that carry on photosynthesis • Oceans influence the climates around the world.
Other Resources – Water – Oceans • Biblical Integration • Genesis 1:9 – “And God said, ‘let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear.’ And it was so.” • God the Father has provided for man’s physical well-being by supplying shelter, food, and water. He has provided for man’s spiritual well-being through Christ’s death on the cross.
Other Resources – Water – Fresh Water • Only a small part of Earth’s water is fresh water, and most of that water is frozen. • Ground water – rainwater stored beneath the surface of the earth • Aquifers – layers of sand, gravel, or bedrock that hold and move ground water • Drawdown – occurs when a lot of water is drawn from a well and the water level falls • Biblical Integration • Genesis 16 contains the first Bible reference to a well. The Lord provided this well to sustain Hagar. Hagar named the well Beeriahairoi, a name that reminded her that God lives and sees.
Other Resources – Water – Atmosphere • A small amount of Earth’s water is held as water vapor in the atmosphere. • Humidity – water vapor in the air
Other Resources – Water – Frozen Water • Seventy percent (70%) of the world’s fresh water is in Antarctica (Earth’s southernmost continent) • Ice sheet – huge expanse of ice • Ice shelf – an ice sheet that floats on water • Icebergs – independently floating pieces of glaciers, ice sheets or ice shelves • Sea ice – frozen ocean water • The geographic North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean. Therefore, it is on ice, not land.
Preserving Our Resources • Things you can do to help conserve the resources • Reduce the amount of resources you use. • Reuse materials that would sometimes get thrown away. • Recycle resources and remake them into other products.