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Natural Resources

Natural Resources

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Natural Resources

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  1. Natural Resources Alternate Energy Sources

  2. Solar Energy • Definition Of Solar Energy • This is energy received from the sun by the Earth in the last 100 years • Hydroelectric power • Wind power • PG & E 83 MW by 1990 • SCE 43 MW by 1990 • Wood • Ocean currents • Passive and direct solar power

  3. Solar Energy • Advantages of Solar Power • Solar energy received by the Earth is enormous 17.7 x 1016 watts • 100,000 x world electrical output • Infinite supply • Constant supply • No pollution • No boycotts • Biologically compatible

  4. Solar Energy • Low-grade thermal energy for heating our homes and businesses • Medium-grade thermal energy for running some industrial processes • High-grade thermal energy for driving turbines to generate electricity Source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov

  5. Solar Energy • Electrical energy, converted directly from sunlight, to provide electricity • Chemical energy in hydrogen, for use in fuel cells and a broad range of electrical, heating, and transportation applications. Source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov

  6. Solar Energy • Concentrating Solar Power • Converts the sun’s energy into heat, which is then used to generate electricity in a steam generator Source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov

  7. Solar Energy Mojave Desert, Kramer Junction, California Oil in tubes is heated, then transferred to a power station to generate electricity A solar dish-engine system is an electric generator that "burns" sunlight instead of gas or coal to produce electricity Source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov

  8. Sunderbans region of West Bengal, India. Rooftop PV modules on a village health center in West Bengal provide power for refrigerators containing medicines and vaccines, for lights, and for other important needs. Mars Rover “Sojourner ” PV shingles from United Solar Systems Corporation mount directly on the roof and serve two purposes: they produce electricity for the home and provide the same protection value of an asphalt roof shingle. Solar Energy • Photovoltaics Source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov

  9. Solar Energy • Solar thermal energy powers: • solar hot water • solar space heating • solar pool heaters • Other items that use the energy immediately • Bulky, somewhat expensive initially Source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov

  10. Water Power • History and Potential • Large scale generation and transmission of water power started around 1900 • Present production is 45,000 MW • Ultimate maximum based on stream flow is 161,000 MW • It appears that some used potential may help compensate for declining fossil fuels

  11. Water Power • The Problems of Hydroelectric Power • Dams have a large impact on the environment • Most acceptable hydro sites are already developed • Hydroelectric power only supplies a small percent of the nations power

  12. Tidal Power • Same Basic Principle as Hydroelectric Power • Tidal energy can be exploited in two ways: • By building semi-permeable undersea tidal turbines across estuaries with a high tidal range. • By harnessing offshore tidal streams

  13. Tidal Power • How it works: • Water flow as basin fills or empties drives turbines • Similar to a wind turbine, but goes in both directions • Requires a daily tidal range of 5-7 meters (~15-21 feet) to be practical

  14. Tidal Power • Locations • 240 MW facility has operated in France since 1966 • 20 MW in Canada since 1984 • A number of stations in China since 1977, totaling 5 MW

  15. List of World Main Tidal Power Stations Country Power Station Tidal Loss (m) Capacity (MW) Operated Since France Langce 8.5 240 1966 Canada Andeboriece 7.1 19.1 1984 Former Soviet Union Gicelaya 3.9 0.4 1968 China Jiangxia 5.1 3.2 1980 China Baishakou 2.4 0.64 1978 China Xingfuyang 4.5 1.28 1989 China Yuepu 3.6 0.15 1971 China Haishan 4.9 0.15 1975 China Shashan 5.1 0.04 1961 China Liuhe 2.1 0.15 1976 China Guozishan 2.5 0.04 1977

  16. Tidal Power • La Rance, France - world's first tidal power plant • Average tidal range 27 feet • Dam encloses 8.5 sq. miles • Capacity is 320,000 KW

  17. Tidal Power • Low Production but also Low Environmental Impact • No noxious waste • No consumption of resources • Minimum disturbance to scenery

  18. Geothermal Power • Source of the Energy • Conduction to the surface • Convection by volcanoes and hot springs

  19. U.S. Geothermal Resource Map Source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/geomap.html

  20. Geothermal Power • Types of power plants • Dry Steam Power Plants • Flash Steam Power Plants • Binary-Cycle Power Plants • How a Geothermal Power Plant Works • How an Enhanced Geothermal System Works

  21. Geothermal Power • Dry Steam Power Plants • Steam rises to the surfaceand is used directly to drive a turbine • Geysers, California is an example • Produced 2000MW by 1986 • Serves 12 cities & 2 million people around Sonoma County Source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/powerplants.html

  22. Geothermal Power • Flash Steam Power Plants • Fluids above 360°F (182°C) • Fluid is sprayed into a tank which is at a much lower pressure, causing the fluid to vaporize or “flash” • Vapor drives the turbine, which drives the generator Source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal

  23. Geothermal Power • Binary-Cycle Power Plants • Geothermal fluid is mixed with a fluid with a much lower boiling point than water • Both pass through a heat exchanger • Secondary fluid vaporizes, drives turbine • Closed system, therefore no emissions Source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal

  24. Geothermal Power • Direct Use of Geothermal Energy • low-to moderate-temperature water – 68°F to 302°F (20°C to 150°C) • Residential, commercial and industrial uses • Widespread throughout the U.S. Source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal

  25. Geothermal Power • Environmental Impacts and Benefits of Using Geothermal Energy • Clean, sustainable energy • Reduces Our Dependence on Imported Energy • Fosters Local Economic Activity Source: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal

  26. Geothermal Power • Iceland • Mid-Atlantic Ridge above sea level • Three major geothermal power plants which produce about 17% (2004) of the country's electricity • geothermal heating meets the heating and hot water requirements for around 87% of the nation's housing. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geothermal_power_in_Iceland

  27. Source: http://www.os.is/Apps/WebObjects/Orkustofnun.woa

  28. Source: http://www.os.is/Apps/WebObjects/Orkustofnun.woa

  29. Source: http://www.os.is/Apps/WebObjects/Orkustofnun.woa

  30. Alternative Fuels • Includes: • Ethanol • Natural gas • Propane • Hydrogen • Biodiesel* • Electricity • Methanol • Snd p-series fuels

  31. Alternative Fuels • Ethanol • alcohol-based alternative fuel • produced by fermenting and distilling starch crops (corn, barley, and wheat) that have been converted into simple sugars • Blended with gasoline to create E85 Source: US Department of Energy: Alternative Fuels Data Center (http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel)

  32. Alternative Fuels • Ethanol • Benefits: • E85 is easy to use and handle • Using E85 reduces petroleum consumption • E85 is good for the environment • Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFVs) are available and affordable • FFVs have flexible fueling options Source: US Department of Energy: Alternative Fuels Data Center (http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel)

  33. Alternative Fuels • Hydrogen • Used in many internal combustion engine vehicles as a blend with natural gas. • Hydrogen + oxygen is used with with PEM fuel cell vehicles Source: US Department of Energy: Alternative Fuels Data Center (http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel)

  34. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells Flash Animated Graphic <http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/animation/swfs/fuelcellframe.html>

  35. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells

  36. Alternative Fuels • Hydrogen • Benefits • Stronger national energy security • Reduced greenhouse gas emissions • Improved air quality • Increased energy efficiency. Source: US Department of Energy: Alternative Fuels Data Center (http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel)

  37. Alternative Fuels • Methanol • Wood Alcohol • M85 (a blend of 85% methanol and 15% gasoline) • used to make methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) Source: US Department of Energy: Alternative Fuels Data Center (http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel)

  38. Alternative Fuels • Methanol • Benefits • lower emissions, higher performance, and lower risk of flammability than gasoline • Can be made from a wide variety of carbon-based fuels • Disadvantages • produces a high amount of formaldehyde in emissions • contaminates ground water Source: US Department of Energy: Alternative Fuels Data Center (http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel)

  39. Alternative Fuels • Natural Gas • Domestically produced • can either be stored onboard a vehicle as: • compressed natural gas (CNG) at 3,000 or 3,600 psi • liquefied natural gas (LNG) at typically 20-150 psi • Can also be blended with hydrogen Source: US Department of Energy: Alternative Fuels Data Center (http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel)

  40. Alternative Fuels • Natural Gas • Benefits • cleanest burning alternative fuels available • air exhaust emissions less than regular gas Source: US Department of Energy: Alternative Fuels Data Center (http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel)

  41. Alternative Fuels • Propane (LPG) • produced as a by-product of natural gas processing and crude oil refining • Benefits • produce fewer ozone-forming emissions • Costs less • Readily available to the public • Domestically produced Source: US Department of Energy: Alternative Fuels Data Center (http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel)

  42. Alternative Fuels • P-Series • a unique blend of natural gas liquids (pentanes plus), ethanol, and the biomass-derived co-solvent methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) • used in flexible fuel vehicles (FFV's) • Not produced in large quantities • Not widely used. Source: US Department of Energy: Alternative Fuels Data Center (http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel)

  43. 10 Ways to Reduce Your Fuel Costs • Use the Right Grade of Gasoline / Don’t Top Off • Look for the Best Price / Limit Purchases When Prices are High • Use Carpooling / Public Transit / Non-Motorized Options • Take Advantage of Telecommuting / Telecommunications Technology • Don’t Drive Aggressively / Drive at the Speed Limit

  44. 10 Ways to Reduce Your Fuel Costs • Reduce Air Conditioner Use / Close Windows • Eliminate Extra Wind Resistance and Weight • Minimize Vehicle Idling • Maintain Vehicle Efficiency • Drive or Purchase a Fuel Efficient Vehicle

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