TEACHING WRITING USING THE WRITING PROCESS
Outcome: Students engage in a “writing process” to write for a number of different purposes. 0.1 Teachers teach students the stages of the writing process. 0.2 Directed teaching of writing occurs daily and includes implementing preplanned mini-lessonsfocusing on teaching students a variety of aspects of each stage of the writing process. 0.3 Teachers develop and implement an efficient classroom management system for supporting each student in the various stages of the writing process. 0.4Teachers support all students with personalized scaffolding strategies, as needed, in the prewriting stage, including identifying reason for writing, choosing a topic, identifying audience, determining form, etc.
0.5 Teachers support all students with personalized scaffolding strategies, as needed, in the draftingstage, including finding, ordering, and selecting information about which to write, etc.0.6 Teachers support all students with personalized scaffolding strategies, as needed, in the revising (for clarity) stage, including choice of grammar, determining amount of information, presenting information in different way, use of graphics, etc 0.7 Teachers support all students with personalized scaffolding strategies, as needed, in the editingstage, including proofreading and correcting composition as it relates to spelling and mechanics of punctuation, and grammar.0.7 Teachers support all students with personalized scaffolding strategies, as needed, in the publishingstage, including making final copy, selecting a way to share with intended audience (e.g., bookshelves, author’s chair/share, bulletin boards, “binding”, etc.).0.8 Students are given routine opportunities to discuss their writing with their peers/others/intendedaudience.0.9 Each student has a writing portfolio that contains at least 5 publications representing different forms. All 5 publications have evidence of progress through each phase of the writing process.
Activity-Getting to Know One Another Form teams of four members who do not know each other. Pair up to do interview. Decide who is A and B. A’s interview B’s. B’s interview A’s. Without talking any more write about your partner. Partners get together to see if revision is necessary. Groups use Rallytable to proofread/edit. Make final copy. Share by introducing your partner.
“Another way students learn to read is by writing. For some children, their own writing provides the first successful reading experience. Many children love the combination of writing and illustrating that leads to a published work. Children’s writing samples, prior to the publication stage, serve as a rich portrait of how well young minds are applying important language skills and strategies, as well as what they know about words”. -Patricia M. Cunningham, Dorothy P. Hall, & Cheryl M. Sigmon
Why teach writing? Reading Improvement Required Communication Influence Others Thought Clarification
What do you have to say? Be active. Do it. Student chooses the words. Productive. Output. What did they have to say? Sit still. Pay attention. Teacher chooses the words. Consumptive. Input. Virginia DeBolt, 1998 Writing to LearnReading to Learn
WRITING PROCESS Daily Opportunities to explore and create writing Progression through a number of levels Part of well balanced literacy program
CURRICULUM PHILOSOPHY • INTEGRATED LANGUAGE ARTS • COMMUNICATION AS CENTRAL FOCUS • LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS DEVELOPEDAND APPLIED IN CONTEXT • RESOURCE BASED CURRICULUM • SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENT • REFLECTIVE TEACHER/FACILITATOR • RESPECT OF GRADUAL, ONGOING LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Purposes of Writing To record events To explain To hypothesize To persuade To invite a response To predict To command, direct, or request To amuse, entertainTo narrate To invent To inform To find out To invite reflection To summarize To comment or give an opinion Dancing with the Pen
WRITING WORKSHOP A BLOCK OF TIME SCHEDULED EACH DAY WITH STUDENTS WORKING THROUGH THE WRITING PROCESS. THIS TIME TYPICALLY BEGINS WITH A TEACHER DIRECTED MINI-LESSON FOLLOWED BY STUDENTS WRITING ON THEIR OWN. THE TEACHER MOVES FROM INSTRUCTOR TO FACILITATOR AND PROMOTER OF WRITING WITH FOCUS ON INDIVIDUALIZATION.
THE WRITING WORKSHOP IS HIGHLY STRUCTURED AND GENENRALLY REQUIRES: A TIMETABLE RULES CLASSROOM SPACE A TYPICAL STUDENT MATERIALS LESSON
TIMETABLE DAILY SCHEDULED TIME KINDERGARTEN: 30 – 40 MINUTES GRADES 1 – 3: 45 MINUTES – 1 HOUR GRADES 4 AND UP – AT LEAST ONE HOUR OR MORE INTEGRATED INTO ANOTHER SUBJECT -Linda J. Dorn and Carla Soffos
SPACE WHERE WILL BE THE DESIGNATED WRITING AREA? WILL THERE BE A TABLE OR COUNTER SPACE FOR NEEDED MATERIALS? WILL THERE BE WALL SPACE CLOSE FOR WRITING POSTERS? WILL THERE BE WORD WALLS? ARE THERE PLACES TO DISPLAY STUDENT WRITING? -Linda J. Dorn and Carla Soffos
RULES KEEP TO A MINIMUM. THERE WILL BE MOVEMENT AS STUDENTS ORGANIZE WRITING AND OBTAIN MATERIALS FROM THE WRITING CENTER. THERE WILL BE CONFERENCING. A GOOD RULE OF THUMB IS THAT “WRITING TIME IS QUIET TIME”. -Linda J. Dorn and Carla Soffos
A TYPICAL LESSON • LESSON STARTS WITH A MINI-LESSON THAT IS USUALLY 5-20 MINUTES LONG. • STUDENTS PROCEED WITH THEIR OWN WRITING. THEY WILL BE AT VARIOUS STAGES IN THE PROCESS. • AT THE END OF THE LESSON STUDENTS NEED A CHANCE TO SHARE THEIR WRITING. -Linda J. Dorn and Carla Soffos
DATE STAMP STACKING TRAY WITH VARIOUS KINDS AND COLORS OF PAPER MARKERS, PENS, COLORED PENCILS BASKETS FOR WRITING PAPERS STAGE STAMPS AND INKPAD ATLAS RUBBER STAMPS FOR DECORATION CHARTS STAPLER HOLEPUNCH TAPE STICKYNOTES DICTIONARIES THESAURUS WORD BOOKS PHONEBOOKS MATERIALS
STAGES OF THEWRITING PROCESS ~ PREWRITING ~ ~ DRAFTING ~ ~ REVISING ~ ~ PROOFREADING ~ ~ PUBLISHING ~
ROTATINg REVIEW 1. Topics are written on pieces of chart paper and hung around the room. 2. Each team is given a marker. 3. Designate teams to go to one of the papers. 4. Team is given one minute to write on the paper about specific topic. 5. Teams rotate to next paper when time is called. 6. Teams are given one minute to read what the previous team has written. 7. Teams put a question mark beside ones that they have a question on or disagree. 8. Team has an additional thirty seconds to write any other information. 9. Continue this procedure until each team has rotated to all the papers.
Prewriting The writer establishes and clarifies a purpose of writing, brainstorms possible topics, collects pertinent materials, identifies an audience, chooses an appropriate form of writing, and establishes an initial organizational strategy. The teacher helps students select topics, encourages them to talk to generate ideas and language about the topic, provides resources, suggestions, and materials and discusses appropriate format and audience.
INSPIRATION FOR TOPIC IDEAS PERSONAL INTEREST INVENTORIES CLASS INTEREST INVENTORIES MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS, PERIODICALS RADIO, TV, INTERNET INTERVIEWS DREAMS, MEMORIES, EXPERIENCES LITERATURE RESPONSE DISCUSSION, BRAINSTORMING, ROLE PLAYING, IMAGINATION
BRAINSTORMING FREE WRITING TOPIC OR WORD CHARTS LISTS JOURNALLING WEBBING MAPPING CLUSTERING IMAGE STREAMING VISUALIZATION FAST WRITING GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS THINKING DAYDREAMING WAYS TO PREWRITE WAYS TO PREWRITE
PREWRITING STRATEGIES ~ Graphic Organizers – brainstorming webs, mind maps, and other charts that help organize thoughts and ideas ~ ~ Come Aboard a R.A.F.T. – Role, Audience, Format, Topic ~ ~ Descriptive Word Prompters ~ ~ Five Senses Chart ~ ~ Handprint Organizer ~
Cooperative Learning Structuresfor Prewriting 4-S Brainstorming Formations Inside-Outside Circle Roundrobin Team Discussion Team Interview Think-Pair-Share
Drafting Drafting Drafting Drafting Drafting The writers express ideas in an uninterrupted flow while keeping the purpose and audience in mind. They get information on paper, concentrate on content and explore topic possibilities. Invented spellings, blanks, cross-outs, and abbreviations are acceptable. The teacher offers encouragement, helps organize information, gives assistance focusing on the topic, provides enough time and structure to ensure students get off to a good start.
FIRST DRAFT QUESTIONS What is the purpose for writing this piece? What will my audience want to know about this topic? How can I best arrange my information? What main ideas do I want to present? What details will support my main ideas? What will make a good lead to catch the reader’s attention? How can I end the piece effectively? -Gary R. Muschia
Revising The writers narrow down topics, eliminate irrelevant writing, reorganize writing, write additional drafts, and research information. Content quality, clarity, smooth flowing ideas, and descriptive language is emphasized. Teachers encourage peer revision sessions and encourage students to talk to other students about their writing and add, cut, and reorder their writing.
Revision is not editing for mechanics and spelling. It is probably the most difficult stage to teach students. Encourage students to: Write on one side of the paper. Use markers or pens so they can concentrate on ideas and not on erasing. Skip lines so it is easy to mark out/change words.
All writing does not have to be revised, BUT… Teach students to ask themselves: • Can I improve my writing? • Should I write from a different point of view? • Are there places where my writing could be clearer, more interesting, more informative, or more convincing?
REVISING METHODS A.R.R.R. Adding, Rearranging, Removing, Replacing R.A.G. Read Around Group A.R.M.S. Add, Remove, Move Around, Substitute
Proofreading/Editing Writers should correct mechanical errors (spelling, punctuation, and capitalization). Writing should be read aloud before the final copy is made. An editing checklist is a good tool. Teachers should encourage peer proofreading, provide vocabulary, give instruction of specific skills, help students evaluate their writing, and encourage students to consult reference materials.
Teach basic editing conventions to students and encourage them to use them in editing. Teach popular acronyms such as: C Capitalization O Organization P Punctuation/Paragraphs S Sentences/Spelling Use editing checklists
Cooperative Learning Structures for Editing/Proofreading Corners Experts Edit Pairs Confer Roundtable Teams Confer Virginia Debolt, 1998
Publishing Publishing Publishing Writers make their final copies and share their finished work. Writers feel that their writing is important when they share. Teachers should encourage students to share by reading aloud, publishing, organizing a class book, making their own books, displaying final drafts, and sharing with bulletin boards, electronic bulletin boards, multimedia presentations, newsletters, newspapers, oral presentations, journals, etc. Publishing Publishing Publishing
Author’s Chair is a popular way for students to share their writing. Response to writing 2 Hugs and a Wish TAG
Activity Look at your card. Go to the corner having the word that matches your word. Share with the other people in your corner anything about that stage of the writing process. Go to your seat and write about something that was shared in your group. Use Inside/Outside Circle to check to see if revisions are needed. Make any that are needed. Go back to your corner to proofread papers. Go to seat and make your final copy for publishing.
Every child has problems learning to write. • Every child has predictable problems. • ~ J.M. Cunningham A comprehensive writing curriculum includes the best solutions to teach K-5 students to overcome a major problem they have learning to write well.
lack of self-confidence/ self-efficacy • lack of intrinsic motivation • lack of independence (many students do not see writing at home) ( need by 3rd grade or very tough to teach) ( words to spell, topic to write…) Problems... • Motivation • (2-3 years to develop) • (More prevalent in writing than reading) -J.M. Cunningham
Solutions/ Addressing Motivation Problems -J.M. Cunningham
Writing isn’t just a speaking problem…. • Spelling • Capitalization • Punctuation • Formatting • Usage (more tolerant in speech than writing) -J..M. Cunningham
Solutions: Writing Isn’t Just a Speech Problem • Word Walls for high frequency words • Writing mini-lessons • Editing instruction (how to use a Word Wall and editor’s checklist to proofread and correct you own paper independently) -J.M. Cunningham
Writing Research Meta-analysis review of writing research… George Hallocks of Chicago stated, “If you want to teach students appropriate, mechanical writing, you must teach students to proofread and correct their own paper using a small set of rules ….editor’s checklist”. -J.M. Cunningham
The Automaticity Problem (Take 4-5 years to develop) • The natural inability to “juggle” all the components of writing at the same time • Need student to have an acceptable first draft. • “Good writers must handwrite, spell, capitalize, and format” • Taking dictation is a horrible writing activity • (example- Student can do one worksheet but doesn’t generalize to writing and spelling on test, not a writing paper) • By the end of elementary the automaticity has developed such that the first draft is “adequate” to the last draft. -J.M. Cunningham
Solutions to Automaticity Problem The Writing Process & Writer’s Workshop • Revision… ways to change content (add, delete, re-order, replace content) • Editing… rule-based ways of finding and correcting errors • Copying -J.M. Cunningham
Mini-Lessons Mini-lessons begin in a “huddle” in the front of the classroom. The children are close and can see the teacher write as she “thinks aloud” and talks about what she is doing and why. The teacher writes and models all the things writers may do. Mini-lessons vary according to grade level and the observed needs of children. -J.M. Cunningham
Great ideas for Mini-Lessons • Actual class procedures used during the writing period • Rules for the writing period made by teacher and/or students • Teacher models writing using “think-alouds” • Working together with the class on shared writing • “Words Authors Use” (Have a word a day. Examples:publish, illustrate, edit, topic, dedicate, etc.) • Grammar and Usage -- • nouns-words that mean a person,place or thing • verbs-words that show action • adjectives- words that describe • 7. Capital letters • 8. Punctuation marks • 9. How to “Set a Scene” (setting) • 10. Fiction • 11. Non-fiction • 12. Mysteries • 13. Stories that teach 14.“Feelings” in writing 15. Read a book, any book! Books are great writing models 16. How to add to or change a story 17. Staying on the topic 18. Rhyming words 19. Synonyms 20. Homonyms 21. Antonyms 22. Poetry (This could turn into a week of mini-lessons) 23. Letter Writing 24. Interviews 25. Riddles 26. Jokes 27. Newspapers 28. How to make a list 29. Student pieces (Always use a piece that a student has down correctly) -J.M. Cunningham
Revision Mini-Lesson • Bring in something already written (with mistakes), and put on the overhead. • Revise- Is it interesting? Does it do what I wanted? • Get the student to elicit ways that address change. • Cut poor parts out (kids like to see you cut it out!) • Typically when adding revision during a mini-lesson, do not say what you are writing (teachers typically do). If you don’t say while writing, students have the chance to read. • Tape the parts to overhead • Ask if anyone wants to revise -J.M. Cunningham
Teaching Students Copying Strategies Copying without new mistakes! • First- must be revised & approved. • Second- must be revised, edited, & approved. Step 1: Copy one sentence at a time. Check every sentence to see if copied. Use fingers word by word to help copy correctly. -J.M. Cunningham
The Multiple-Genres Problem There are many different types of genres or types of writing. Each one must be learned separately! -J.M. Cunningham
Solutions to the Multiple-Genres Problem Initially self-selected until enough confidence…motivation to write then address multiple-genres by: • Focused writing lessons on a variety of types of writing - teacher selected writing. • Carefully crafted prompts - problems not prompting students, it’s when we prompt- this is the heart of a focused writing lesson. • Genre-based writing scales- not to teach students to edit, but how to revise --use descriptive writing scales (teacher use rubric, not students) --Scale is in a yes/no-present/not present format; one item at a time -J.M. Cunningham