REFORMATION AND ITS IMPACT ON WESTERN THOUGHT AND SOCIETY
Definition • Background of the Reformation • Renaissance • Invention of printing press • Discoveries in Science • Early Reformers • Marsiglio of Padua • John Wycliffe • John Hus • Martin Luther • Extract from 95 Theses • Indulgences are un necessary • Recasting of the old traditions • John Calvin • Ulrich Zwingli • Aims Of reformation Movement • Impact of Reformation Movement • Conclusion
Reformation • 16th century religious movement • Removal of Tribulations of the church • Put an end to the dominance of popes
Reasons of The Reformation Movement • Renaissance spirit • Invention of moveable type • Discoveries in science • Dominance of popes
Renaissance • Revival of Classical Learning • Study of Humanity rather Theology • Rejection of the ideas of Middle Ages • Machiavelli -- political thought rejected the religion and considered it unnecessary for the rulers.
Invention of Printing Pressallowed more and more people to access ancient classical reading as well as Bible to know themselves what the church has made changes in it by the time.
Discovery in ScienceNicholas Copernicus1473-1543 • He want he proved that the earth is not the centre of the universe • He in 1543 proved that earth did not move in the space
Earlier Reformers • Marsiglio of Padua • John Wycliffe • John Hus
Marsiglio of Padua1275-1342 • supporter for the autonomy of political unit _ city state, kingdom or empire in matters spiritual and temporal • Represented medieval political thought
John Wycliffe1330-1384 • faith must be available to all • translation of Bible into Vernacular • Theocracy worst form of the Govt.
John Hus1369___1415 follower of John Wycliffe anti papal doctrine declared that church should not owned property
Martin Luther 11483----1546 • Founder of Reformation Movement • Justification by faith • Support for monarchy • Revolt on Oct 31st 1521 • Individual interpretation of Bible
Extract from Luther’s 95 ThesesOct 31st 1517Indulgences are un necessary • "Any truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without indulgence letters. • Any true Christian, whether living or dead, participates in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is granted him by God, even without indulgence letters. • ..... those who preach indulgences are in error when they say that a man is ... saved from every penalty by the pope’s indulgences. • Christians should be taught that to give to the poor or to lend to the needy is a better work than the purchase of pardons.
Recasting of the Old Traditions • Luther did not intend the gradual reform within the old faith but a fundamental recasting of traditional doctrines and practices. Luther also revived the dark debates and narrow theological interests of middle ages. For Luther, to endow man with complete freedom of will in morality and religious matters meant to ascribe truly divine powers to him.
John Calvin • 1509-1564 • That man’s nature is basically evil, not basically good. • Form of Govt. would be a theocracy. • Drama and extravagance of the church was censored.
Ulrich Zwingli • 1484_1531 • State and church should be merged to form a single Govt. • He was convinced that he was god’s prophet for spreading the faith.
Aims of Reformation movement • The first was the purely religious one. • Revolt against the splendor • Development of political and social ideas.
Impact of Reformation movement • Division of the whole of the Europe on Religious bases. • (Thirty Year War 1618----1648) • Religious Liberty • Individualism • Denial of any dogmatic authority • Nationalism • Secularism • Progress of Science
Thirty year war1618-1648Initially the war was fought largely as a religious conflict between Protestant and Catholics in the Roman Empire, although disputes over the internal politics and balance of power within the Empire played a significant part.
Conclusion • Reformation Movement anticipated Modern Times • It established Protestant Churches through out the Europe. • Movements manifesting the Modern West (Enlightenment, Individualism,Secularism etc) are the off shoots of Reformation Movement