Chapter 3: The English ColoniesEssential Question: How did the experiences of the colonists shape Americas political and social ideals?
3-1 The southern coloniesBig idea: Despite a difficult beginning, the Southern colonies flourished. Key Terms: Indentured servants Toleration Act of 1649 Slave codes Settlement in Jamestown King James I granted a company of English merchants permission to settle in Virginia Founding a New Colony Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in North America A lack of preparation and skills cost the lives of 2/3 of the first colonists Powhatan Confederacy John Smith improved life in Jamestown with stiff rules on work The Powhatan Confederacy helped the colonists grow corn and other food War in Virginia The Marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas helped keep peace for a while War broke out with the Indians in 1622 and lasted 20 years In 1624, Virginia became a royal colony
Daily Life in Virginia People in Virginia lived on scattered farms Tobacco farmers established plantations to grow their crops Headright System Colonists received 50 acres of land for each person on their farm: family, servants , and slaves. Labor in Virginia At first, the majority of workers were indentured servants, people who agreed to work off the cost of immigration. Expansion of Slavery The first slaves were brought to Virginia in 1619 As the cost of slaves fell and the demand for workers grew, slavery increased. Bacon’s Rebellion Nathaniel Bacon rebelled against the Virginia colony. He and his followers wanted the right to take Indian land and opposed new taxes
Other Southern colonies As Jamestown was developing in Virginia, other groups began to move to America Maryland George Calvert, the Earl of Baltimore, founded Maryland as a safe haven for Catholics. Proprietary colony—owners controlled the government The Toleration Act of 1649 made it a crime to restrict the religious rights of Christians The Carolinas and Georgia North Carolina was settled by farmers from Virginia Fresh Europeans settled South Carolina By 1730, slaves outnumbers free whites in the Carolinas 2-1 James Oglethorpe founded Georgia as a new start for debtors and as a buffer against Spanish Florida Economies of the southern Colonies Economies of the southern colonies depended on agriculture Slaves became the main source of labor Slave codes were laws meant to control slaves
3-2 The New England ColoniesBig Idea: English colonists traveled to New England to gain religious freedom. Key Terms: Puritans Pilgrims Immigrants Pilgrims and Puritans A Protestant group called the Puritans wanted to “purify” or reform the Anglican Church Pilgrims on the Move Pilgrims wanted to separate from the Church of England and left England to avoid persecution The Mayflower Compact The Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock in Modern day Massachusetts The male colonists signed the Mayflower Compact to create fair laws for the common good Pilgrims and Native Americans Pilgrims received help from Native Americans like Squanto and Massasoit Native Americans and Pilgrims celebrated the first Thanksgiving
Pilgrim community Most Pilgrims lived on small farms Families and religion were the center of Pilgrim life Women in the Colony Women had more legal rights than in England Women could sign contracts and widows could own property Puritans Leave England Puritans came into conflict with King Charles I over taxes and criticism of the Church of England. Great Migration In 1629, King Charles granted a group of Puritans a Charter to settle in New England Puritans sailed to Massachusetts to build an ideal Christian community A New Colony Puritans came to New England better prepared than colonists at Plymouth and Jamestown By 1691, the Massachusetts Bay Colony expanded to include the Pilgrim’s Plymouth Colony.
Religion and Government in New England Politics and religion were closely linked in Puritan New England Male church members were the only colonists who could vote Roger Williams was forced from Massachusetts for disagreeing with church leadership over taking land from the Indians Anne Hutchinson was expelled for criticizing leaders in public New England Economy Harsh climate and rocky soil meant few farms could grow cash crops Low demand for farm laborers makes slavery rare Merchants Trade was vital to new England’s economy Merchants grew in power and wealth, becoming leading members of their colonies Fishing Fishing became a leading industry Whaling provided oil for lighting Shipbuilding Forests provided lumber for ship building Ports grew as more merchant ships were built Skilled Craftspeople Younger sons often learned trades as apprentices from master craftsmen After a certain amount of time, apprentices became journeymen
Education in the Colonies Mothers and Fathers wanted their children to be able to read the Bible The Massachusetts Bay colony passed some of the first laws requiring parents to provide instruction for their children. Public Education Communitiesestablished town schools In 1674, Massachusetts ordered a school founded in every township of 50 families Most colonial children stopped education after the elementary grades Higher Education 1636- founding of Harvard University in New England 1693-William and Mary college founded in Virginia By 1700 about 70% of men and 45% of women in New England could read and write
3-3 The Middle ColoniesBig Idea: People from many nations settled in the Middle Colonies Key Terms: Quakers Staple crops New York and New Jersey The Dutch founded New Amsterdam in 1613 as a fur trading post New Amsterdam was renamed New York after its capture by a British fleet The Duke of York later gave New Jersey to some of his friends New Jersey had a diverse population
Penn’s Colony Quakers made up one of the largest religious groups in New Jersey Quakers supported non-violence and religious tolerance William Penn founded Pennsylvania to provide a safe home for Quakers Penn limited his own power and established an elected assembly Economy of the Middle Colonies Good climate and rich land allowed farmers to grow large amounts of staple crops Indentured servants largely filled the need for labor in the Middle colonies Trade, including wheat from New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey became important
Thirteen Colonies New England Massachusetts Connecticut Rhode Island New Hampshire Middle colonies New York New Jersey Pennsylvania Delaware Southern Colonies Maryland Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia
3-4 Life in the English ColoniesBig Idea: The English colonies continued to grow despite many challenges. Key Terms: Town meeting English Bill of Rights Triangular trade Great Awakening Enlightenment Colonial Governments English colonies all had their own governments and were given a charter Colonial governors and Legislatures Each colony had a governor who served as head of government Virginia established the first colonial assembly in 1619 In New England, town meetings talked about and decided on issues of local interest Political change in England English Bill of Rights Parliament replaced King James , reduced the powers of the king and increased their own power Colonial Courts Colonists used the courts to control local affairs Many laws were based on religious beliefs
English Trade Laws Mercantilism, system of creating and maintaining wealth through carefully controlled trade. Navigation Acts prohibited colonists from trading with any country other than England Triangular Trade System in which goods and slaves were traded among the Americas, Britain and Africa Middle Passage Transportation of slaves by ship from Africa to the Americas Thousands of Africans died on the journey Great Awakening and Enlightenment Revolutions in thought changed the Western world in the 1700’s Great Awakening A religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1730’s changed colonial religion Sermons about spiritual equality led some colonists to demand political equality Enlightenment The Enlightenment spread the idea that reason and logic could improve society Enlightenment thinkers believed that there was a social contract between citizens and government John Locke—people have natural rights such as equality and liberty
French and Indian War King Philip’s War fought over the taking of Indian land Native American Allies French colonists in Canada and the Ohio valley traded and allied with the Huron and Algonquin tribes English colonists traded and allied with the Iroquois league War Erupts Fighting breaks out in the Ohio valley as the British tried to move in and take over the fur trade George Washington of Virginia gained fame fighting for the colonies Treaty of Paris British gained all French lands east of the Mississippi, except for New Orleans Britain received Florida from Spain British settlers began moving west to settle new lands Western Frontier Indian leaders like Pontiac opposed British settlement of western lands and attacked British forts Proclamation of 1763-- In order to keep the peace, King George III banned British settlement west of the Appalachians and ordered settlers to leave the Ohio valley
3-5 Conflict in the ColoniesBig Idea: Tensions developed as the British government placed tax after tax on the colonies Key Terms: Committees of Correspondence Stamp Act Boston Tea Party Intolerable Acts Quartering Acts Great Britain Raises Taxes Great Britain needed to pay for the French and Indian War and an army to protect the colonies from the Indians. Parliament passed the Sugar Act raising taxes and created new courts with less rights to prosecute smugglers. Taxation without Representation Colonists objected because there were no colonists in parliament The phrase, “No taxation without representation” began to spread across the colonies Samuel Adams started Committees of Correspondence to share ideas about British laws and how to challenge them Many colonists began to boycott British goods to force change.
Stamp Act A new way for the British to raise money was the Stamp Act of 1765 that required the colonists to pay for an official stamp for all paper items: legal documents, licenses, newspapers and playing cards Colonial reaction to the Stamp Act: more boycotts Samuel Adams formed the Sons of Liberty Patrick Henry and the Virginia House of Burgesses passed resolutions that the Stamp Act violated the Stamp Act violated their rights as Englishmen. Repealing the Stamp Act British merchants hurt by boycotts encouraged Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act. Because they were upset about colonial challenges to their authority, Parliament passed the Declaratory Act which stated Parliament had the right to make laws for the colonies. Townshend Acts 1767: the Townshend Act increased taxes on many items including tea. Colonists reacted with boycotts and violence against tax collectors. The British used Writs of Assistance to search for smuggled goods. The British governor of Massachusetts dissolved the state assembly and asked for troops to restore order. Troops arrived in October 1768.
Boston Massacre Tension increased between British troops and the citizens of Boston. During a riot on March 5, 1770, British troops fired on a Boston crowd and three men were killed. The colonists , led by Samuel Adams and Paul Revere, called the event, The Boston Massacre and used pictures of the riot to stir up resentment against the British. The soldiers were put on trial and defended by John Adams. A Boston jury found them not guilty. The Boston Tea Party The Tea Act of 1773 gave the British East India Tea Company a monopoly on tea sales in the colony. When Tea Company ships arrived in Boston, the Sons of Liberty disguised themselves as Indians and dumped 340 cases of tea into Boston harbor.
The Intolerable Acts In order to punish Boston, Parliament passed the Coercive Acts. The colonists called them the Intolerable Acts.