Old Testament Part I
Lecture X Leviticus
Location in Leviticus Leviticus tells us of the worship taking place in the Tabernacle Exodus ends with the construction of the Tabernacle Then the Lord called to Moses from the tent of meeting (Leviticus 1:1)
From where is this “big idea” derived? “…you shall be holy, for I am Holy” (Leviticus 11:45)
LeviticusHoly and Clean • Holy Place • Holy People • Holy Times
Leviticus(to be studied rather than just read) • Leviticus immediately follows Exodus in the Hebrew Bible, and continues the account of the Israelites in the Sinai wilderness. • Most of Leviticus is devoted to ritual legislation and rules. • Its rabbinic name is torat kohanim, which means "instructions of priests.“ • Since priests came from the tribe of Levi, the Levites, the book came to be called Leviticus.
LeviticusStory Line • Leviticus is presented almost entirely as the speeches of God to Moses at the tent of meeting. There are a few chapters of narration but no continuous story line. After divine descriptions of the types of sacrifices (Leviticus 1-7) • Moses ordained and consecrated Aaron and his sons to serve as priests (8). • At the conclusion of the eight-day ceremony Aaron blessed the people and the fire of God consumed their offerings (9). • When Aaron's sons Nadab and Abihu burned incense with profane fire (it is not clear what that was) they were destroyed by the fire of God (10).
LeviticusStory Line • Then follows the laws concerning what is clean and unclean (11-15) • , the Day of Atonement (16) • , and the Holiness Code (17-26). • Within the latter is found the only remaining narrative, a description of a situation when someone blasphemed the name of God. At God’s instructions he was taken outside the camp and stoned (24). • The book concludes with a discourse on religious vows (27).
LeviticusHoly and Clean • Leviticus deals with a fundamental human question: How can rebellious people meet God and exist in His presence? • The terms that are critical and that need explanation are holy and clean, and their opposites, profane and unclean. According to Leviticus, the Aaronic priesthood was "to distinguish between the holy and the profane, and between the unclean and the clean." • The Holiness Code, found in chapters 17-26, as its name suggests, is preoccupied with matters of holiness. The priestly rituals of Leviticus were intended to distance humans from their imperfect world so they could assume a measure of God's holiness.
Food laws (11:1-47) • rules against eating certain land, water, and air animals • permitted diet is limited to land animals with split hooves and chew the cud • fish must have fins and scales (9f) • flying insects must have jumping legs (20f) • all birds other than those expressly forbidden (13f) • why are some animals clean and others unclean?
Holy and Common (11:1-15:33) • this section interrupts the narrative flow between chs 10 and 16 (similar to Num 19) • provide legislation about impurity • deals with natural, tolerated impurities • basic sources are human and certain animal dead bodies (ch. 11) • normal/abnormal genital discharges (chs 12 and 15) • skin disorders (mistranslated ‘leprosy’ - chs 13-14)
Holy God’s Priests Covenant Living Common Unclean Gentiles or defiled Israelite Common Clean Normal Israelite Clean and Unclean? • Read Lev. 10:10 • Three Categories: • Holy, • Common Clean • Common Unclean
Uncleanness • ch. 11 – unclean foods • ch 12 – childbirth (a week for a male, two weeks for a female!) • ch. 13-14 – skin afflictions, fabrics and walls of houses!
Appropriate Boundaries • holy – that which is related to God • Common (ordinary) related to everyday life • unclean (anomalous) – that which is ‘icky’ or ‘out-of-place’ • appropriate boundaries between these three factors (holy, clean, unclean) • to protect purity of body, homes, clothes, times, places, persons, acts
The Five Main Offerings or Sacrifices The Book of Leviticus 1-7
Levitical Offerings • Voluntary (to God) • Burnt Offering • Meal (Grain) Offering • Peace Offering • Compulsory (for us) • Sin Offering • Trespass Offering • A wrongful interference with the possession of property (personal property as well as realty), or the action instituted to recover damages
1) Burnt Offering The name for the burnt offering comes from the Hebrew word holah, "ascending", because, as the animal was wholly consumed in the fire (with the exception of the skin) • the smoke would rise toward heaven. (The animals in other sacrifices were only partially consumed on the altar.) • The burnt offering symbolized the entire surrender to God of the individual or congregation, God's acceptance of that surrender, and therefore the renewal and restoration of the individual. • Fai Etaph Enf
1) Burnt Offering • This offering was supposed to reflect the inward will of every true Hebrew and so was required to be presented regularly on the following occasions: • Every morning and evening (Exo. 29:38-42; Num. 28:3-8). • Each Sabbath day, double offerings (Num. 28:9,10). • At the new moon, the three great festivals, the Day of Atonement, and Feast of Trumpets (Num. 28:11-29:39). • Special burnt offerings were required: At the consecration of priests (Exo. 29:15; Lev. 8:18; 9:12). • At the purification of women (Lev. 12:6-8) • At the cleansing of lepers (Lev. 14:19).
1) Burnt Offering • The common Israelite worshipper brought a male animal (a bull, lamb, goat, pigeon, or turtledove depending on the wealth of the worshipper) to the door of the tabernacle. • The animal had to be without blemish.
1) Burnt Offering Christ in the Burnt OfferingIn this offering, Christ offering Himself without spot to God to perform God's will with joy; the offering is a sweet savour to God, so-called because it deals with Christ in His own perfections and devotion to the Father's will.The sacrificial animals symbolize Christ in some aspect of His redeeming character. The ox shows His patient endurance as Saviour (1 Cor. 9:9,10; Isa. 52:13-15; Phil. 2:5-8). The sheep or ram portrays Christ in His unresisting facing of death (Isa. 53:7). The goat typifies a sinner, and, when it is used for Christ, shows Him as the One who was "numbered with the transgressors." The turtledove or pigeon symbolizes mourning innocence and portrays poverty. It shows forth Him who became poor that we might become rich. (Isa. 38:14; Heb. 7:26; Lev. 5:7; 2 Cor. 8:9; Phil. 2:6-8).
2) Meal (Grain) Offering • The meal offerings recognized the sovereignty of God and His goodness in providing earthly blessings; thus the best gifts were dedicated to Him, such as flour, as the main support of life; oil, the symbol of richness. • The material of the meal offering was sometimes grain, offered partly unground and partly in refined flour, in both cases with oil poured on and incense added. At other times cakes were prepared, in different ways, with oil, but without leaven. • Meal offerings were either public or private, and were either brought in connection with burnt or peace offerings or by themselves. They were never offered with sin or trespass offerings.
2) Meal (Grain) Offering • A meal offering at the consecration of priests (Lev. 6:20) • A meal offering in substitution for an animal at the sin offering, in case of poverty (Lev. 5:11,12) but no oil no incense • Christ in the Meal OfferingThis offering typifies Christ in His human perfection tested by suffering. The fine flour represented His sinless humanity. The fire is the testing by suffering, even unto death. The frankincense symbolizes the aroma of His life toward the Father (Exo. 30:34). The absence of leaven, a type of evil, shows forth His spotless character. • Some also see bruising, beating, and crushing of the various substances that were required and offered in the meal offering as a "type" of Christ's suffering on the cross.
3) Peace Offering • it was the thanksgiving sacrifice. • In many occasions indicating joy, thanksgiving also with the different vows • It is a symbol of our gratitude to God, and also a symbol of our conciliation with Him • The peace offering is a "type" of Christ in that by His death, Christ "becomes" our peace and the ground of our communion with God • 13But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ. 14 For He Himself is our peace, who has made both one, and has broken down the middle wall of separation(Eph. 2:13-14)
4. Sin offeringLeviticus 4:1-56; 8:14-17; 16:3-22 • Sacrifices for worshipper’s unintentional, ritual, faults against the Lord • The sin offering is covered in chapter 4 of Leviticus and in verse 2 we read "When anyone sins unintentionally and does what is forbidden in any of the LORD'S commands". • Therefore any conduct that unintentionally caused the falling short of what was commanded would be reason for the sin offering. • The meaning is clearly sinning in error through ignorance, hurry, want of consideration, or carelessness. • Such that come from the weakness of our human nature rather than a determined, defiant rebellion against God and his commands
4. Sin offeringLeviticus 4:1-56; 8:14-17; 16:3-22 • Moses instructed various people to offer different sacrifices: • Sins of the high priest • Sins of the Congregation ‘as whole’ • Sins of leaders • Sins of ordinary people
4. Sin offeringLeviticus 4:1-56; 8:14-17; 16:3-22 • A person could commit an unintentional sin in many ways. Some had moral implications; others, like those of lepers (see Luke 6:12-14), were purely ceremonial. • The sin offering and trespass offering (Isa. 53:6, 10, 12) differed from the other offerings in that the body of the animal was sometimes burned, not on the brazen altar (Burnt offering Altar), but "outside the camp" a "type" of Christ's offering • 11For the bodies of those animals, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned outside the camp. 12Therefore Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people with His own blood, suffered outside the gate. 13Therefore let us go forth to Him, outside the camp, bearing His reproach.(Heb. 13:11-13). • God made Christ, “ made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.(2 Cor. 5:21).
4. Trespass OfferingLeviticus 5:14-6:7; 7:1-6 • The trespass offering was very similar to that of the sin offering but the main difference was that the trespass offering was an offering of money for sins of ignorance connected with fraud or economic loss. • For example if someone unintentionally cheated another out of money or property, his sacrifice was to be equal to the amount taken, plus one-fifth (20 %). • Lev 6:5-7 "He shall restore its full value, add one-fifth more to it, and give it to whomever it belongs, on the day of his trespass offering. And he shall bring his trespass offering to the LORD, a ram without blemish from the flock, with your valuation, as a trespass offering, to the priest. So the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD, and he shall be forgiven for any one of these things that he may have done in which he trespasses."
Feasts of Israel Leviticus16, 23
The Feasts of Israel The Spring Feasts(1st Month: Nisan) • Passover • Feast of Unleavened Bread • Feast of First Fruits The Autumn Feasts(7th Month: Tishri) • Feast of Trumpets • Yom Kippur • Feast of Tabernacles
The Feasts of Israel The Spring Feasts(1st Month: Nisan) • Passover • Feast of Unleavened Bread • Feast of First Fruits Feast of Weeks The Autumn Feasts(7th Month: Tishri) • Feast of Trumpets • Yom Kippur • Feast of Tabernacles
Spring Feasts of IsraelLeviticus 23 • First Month’s Feasts • Passover :14th Nissan, One day • Unleavened Bread: 15th Nissan, 7 days • Left Egypt in a hurry • The Lord Jesus • The believers, Number 7 • First Fruit, 1 day, “The day after the Sabbath (Lev 23:11)
Spring Feasts of IsraelLeviticus 23 • The Feast of the Weeks (Harvest) • 50 days from the first fruit • Commemorates the harvest of wheat • Israelites thought they took the Ten commandments 50 days after they left Egypt • The descent of the Holy Spirit on the disciples and birth of the church and the harvest
Autumn Feasts of IsraelLeviticus 23 • Seventh Month’s Feasts • Trumpets :1st of Tishri, One day • Blowing of trumpets • Start of a new year • Asking God to continue His mercy and as a reminder for Him to keep His covenant • A preparation of the Day of Atonement
Autumn Feasts of IsraelLeviticus 16, 23 • Seventh Month’s Feasts • Day of Atonement :10th of Tishri, One day • You shall afflict your souls “23:27”, lev 16 • High priest to the Holy of Holies • A bull for the High priest, 2 goats for people • The Lord Jesus is the High Priest and the offering as well • The 2 goats were to do the same Job and they are a symbol of the Lord Jesus’ act on the cross • First to be killed, his blood is to be taken into the Holy of Holies , sprinkled on the Mercy Seat (not seen by people) to satisfy the justice of God • The second goat is a “scapegoat” , carries the sins of people then set free symbolizing that Jesus took our sin away and God will no linger remember them, and this goat is seen by the whole congregation so it gives them comfort
Autumn Feasts of IsraelLeviticus 23 • Seventh Month’s Feasts • Feast of the Tabernacles (Sukkot, Tents) :10th of Tishri, 7 days • Called the feast of Ingathering • High priest to the Holy of Holies • To thank God on His blessings being the end of the agricultural season • They remember that they were living in Tents while they were in the wilderness
Autumn Feasts of IsraelLeviticus 23 • Ritual of the last day of the feast • John 7:37 -39“On the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried out, saying, "If anyone thirsts, let him come to Me and drink. 38He who believes in Me, as the Scripture has said, out of his heart will flow rivers of living water." 39But this He spoke concerning the Spirit, whom those believing in Him would receive; for the Holy Spirit was not yet given, because Jesus was not yet glorified.” • 1 Co 10: 3 “all ate the same spiritual food, 4and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ.”