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Phylum Arthropoda

Phylum Arthropoda. The largest animal phylum- 1 million species of crabs, shrimp, spiders, scorpions and insects make up this phylum Have jointed appendages; segmented bodies Exoskeletons made of chitin Molt; have heads with many sensory organs. Bilateral

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Phylum Arthropoda

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  1. Phylum Arthropoda • The largest animal phylum- 1 million species of crabs, shrimp, spiders, scorpions and insects make up this phylum • Have jointed appendages; segmented bodies • Exoskeletons made of chitin • Molt; have heads with many sensory organs. • Bilateral • Simple and complex eyes that detect only light intensity and form images • Antennae that smell chemical substances in the environment

  2. Phylum Arthropods (cont.) • Sexual Reproduction- where sperm is released inside the female’s body, not in water. • Larvae of many species develop into very different adults, a process called metamorphosis. • Can develop resistance to insecticides- demonstrates how quickly they adapt to a changing environment. • Short generations and many offspring increase the chance that random mutations will produce a few resistant individuals

  3. Cephalothorax Abdomen Thorax Antennae (sensory reception) Head Swimming appendages Walking legs Figure 18.11A Mouthparts (feeding) Pincer (defense) • Arthropods are segmented animals with jointed appendages and an exoskeleton

  4. Colorized SEM 900 A black widow spider (about 1 cm wide) A dust mite (about 420 µm long) A scorpion (about 8 cm long) Figure 18.11B, C • Chelicerates • Include horseshoe crabs and arachnids, such as spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks

  5. Figure 18.11D • Millipedes and Centipedes • Are identified by the number of jointed legs per body segment

  6. Figure 18.11E • Crustaceans - Are nearly all aquatic - Include crabs, shrimps, and barnacles

  7. Insects are the most diverse group of arthropods • Insects have a 3 -part body consisting of • Head, thorax, and abdomen • Three sets of legs • Wings (most, but not all insects) • Many insects undergo incomplete or complete metamorphosis

  8. A. Order Orthoptera Grasshoppers, crickets, katydids, and locusts B. Order Odonata Dragonflies and damselflies Abdomen Head Thorax Antenna Forewing Eye Figure 18.12B Mouthparts Hindwing Figure 18.12A

  9. C. Order Hemiptera Bedbugs, plant bugs, stinkbugs, and water striders D. Order Coleoptera Beetles Figure 18.12C Figure 18.12D

  10. E. Order Lepidoptera Moths and butterflies F. Order Diptera Flies, fruit flies, houseflies, gnats, mosquitoes Haltere Figure 18.12F Figure 18.12E

  11. Figure 18.12G • G. Order Hymenoptera • Ants, bees, and wasps

  12. Phylum Echinodermata • Sea stars and sea urchins. • Reproduce sexually. • Sperm and eggs are released in water, where they join and fertilize • Movement by seawater into and out of a system of internal tubes.

  13. Anus Spines Stomach Tube feet Canals Figure 18.13A The water vascular system - has suction cup–like tube feet used for respiration and locomotion

  14. Phylum Echinodermata

  15. Phylum Chordata • Vertebrates-fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. • Full development of organ systems • Mostly sexual reproduction 4 defining characteristics: • Stiff dorsal rod helps to organize the embryo's development. • The central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) is tubular • Their sides have slits just behind the head. These pharyngeal slits (pharynx means “throat”) becomes gill slits of adult fish. In air-breathing chordates, they develop into various organs such as internal parts of the ears • They have a tail; in humans it’s the tailbone, or coccyx, which curls internally.

  16. Phylum Chordata

  17. Skeletal rods Skull Gill slits Mouth Figure 18.16B Figure 18.16A • Lampreys are vertebrates that lack hinged jaws and paired fins Most vertebrates have hinged jaws which may have evolved from skeletal supports of the gill slits

  18. CLASS: Fish Jawed vertebrates with gills and paired fins include sharks, ray-finned fishes, and lobe-fins

  19. Figure 18.17A • Chondrichthyans • Have a flexible skeleton made of car tilage • Include sharks and rays

  20. Bony skeleton Dorsal fin Gills Anal fin Operculum Swim bladder Pectoral fin Pelvic fin Heart Rainbow trout, a ray-fin Figure 18.17B • Ray-finned Fishes • A skeleton reinforced with a hard matrix of calcium phosphate • Operculi that move water over the gills • A buoyant swim bladder

  21. Figure 18.17C • Lobe-fins • Have muscular fins suppor ted by bones

  22. Bones supporting gills Tetrapod limb skeleton Figure 18.18A • CLASS: Amphibians • The first tetrapods—vertebrates with 2 pairs of limbs allowing movement on land

  23. Figure 18.18B–D • Include frogs, toads, and salamanders • Most amphibian embryos and larvae must develop in water

  24. Figure 18.19A, B • CLASS: Reptiles • Amniotes — tetrapods with a terrestrially adapted egg • Terrestrial adaptations include • Waterproof scales • A shelled, amniotic egg • Ectothermic

  25. Figure 18.19C Dinosaurs were the most diverse reptiles to inhabit land • Largest animals ever to inhabit land • May have been endothermic, producing their own body heat

  26. Wing claw (like dinosaur) Teeth (like dinosaur) Long tail with many vertebrae (like dinosaur) Feathers Figure 18.20A • CLASS: Birds • Considered feathered reptiles with adaptations for flight • Birds thought to have evolved from small, two-legged dinosaurs called theropods

  27. Figure 18.20B Figure 18.20C • Flight ability is typical of birds but there are a few flightless species Birds are reptiles that have • Wings, feathers, endothermic metabolism, and many other adaptations related to flight such as light bones

  28. Figure 18.21A CLASS: Mammals Amniotes that have hair, produce milk, and are endothermic • Hair, which insulates their bodies • Mammary glands, which produce milk Monotremes lay eggs

  29. Figure 18.21B • The embryos of marsupials and eutherians are nurtured by the placenta within the uterus • Marsupial offspring complete development attached to the mother, usually inside a pouch

  30. Figure 18.21C • Eutherians- placental mammal complete development before birth

  31. The End of Animalia Notes! • Kingdom Books due 4/30!

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