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Human Body

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  1. Human Body Anatomy and PhysiologyHS20-HB1 Analyze the anatomy and physiology of a healthy human.

  2. Indicators • (a) Examine First Nations, Métis and other holistic perspectives of the human body. ((K, A) • (b) Describe the anatomy (structure) and physiology (function) of at least five human body systems (i.e., cardiovascular, endocrine, lymphatic, digestive, urinary, muscular, nervous, respiratory, reproductive, integumentary and skeletal). ((K) • (c) Identify the normal values or ranges for the common vital signs (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, O2 saturation and respiratory rate) of a healthy human. ((K) • (d) Use anatomical terminology, including directional terms, body planes, body regions and body cavities, to locate human anatomical features based on standard anatomical position. ((K, STSE) • (e) Investigate the anatomical locations of organs in mammals such as pigs, rats or cats through dissection or virtual simulation. ((K, S) • (f) Design and carry out an investigation to examine baseline values used for assessing health such as heart rate, O2 saturation, blood pressure, temperature and respiratory rate. ((K, S, A, STSE) • (g) Discuss the interrelationships between the ABO and Rh blood group systems, an individual's blood type and blood donor compatibilities. ((K, S) • (h) Investigate the benefits of normal flora, or normal microbiota, on and in the human body. ((K, S) • (i) Research advances in scientific understanding of human anatomy and physiology. ((STSE)

  3. AnatomyDescribe the anatomy (structure) and physiology (function) of all human body systems (i.e., cardiovascular, endocrine, lymphatic, digestive, urinary, muscular, nervous, respiratory, reproductive, integumentary, and skeletal). (K) Anatomy –Physiology –Major terms: ___________ and ___________ (BIG IDEA: _________________________________)What is an example of this in the body – where structure allows for proper function?

  4. AnatomyDescribe the anatomy (structure) and physiology (function) of all human body systems (i.e., cardiovascular, endocrine, lymphatic, digestive, urinary, muscular, nervous, respiratory, reproductive, integumentary, and skeletal). (K) Anatomy –study of the structure of organisms and their partsPhysiology –study of normal function in living systems.Major terms: Structure and function (BIG IDEA: structure allows for function)What is an example of this in the body – where structure allows for proper function?

  5. Levels of Structural OrganizationUnderstand the components that make up body systems Our body has different levels of structure.Last unit, we looked at nutrients – which would represent the basic chemical structures and parts of our body. Chemical Level

  6. Levels of Structural OrganizationUnderstand the components that make up body systems Our body has different levels of structure.Last unit, we looked at nutrients – which would represent the basic chemical structures and parts of our body. Chemical Level • Atoms (e.g. H, O, C) • Molecules (e.g. DNA, glucose)

  7. Cell – What is an example? • Basic structural/functional units

  8. Subcellular level – OrganelleStructures within cells that perform particular functions. Cell – basic structural unit of all living organisms.What is an example?Red Blood Cell • Basic structural/functional units

  9. In your row look up a definition of:Epithelial tissue – Connective tissue - Muscular tissue – Nervous tissue - Tissue Level • Tissue: Groups of cells that perform a particular function • 4 types – _______________, _____________, ____________, ____________.

  10. In your row look up a definition of:Epithelial tissue – tissues that are comprised of closely packed cells that line cavities or surfaces of organs in the body.Connective tissue - tissue that connects, supports, binds, or separates other tissues or organsMuscular tissue – composed of muscle cells that can contractNervous tissue – send impulses to different parts of the body and react to stimuli. Need Na+ and K+ pump! Tissue Level • Groups of cells that perform a particular function • 4 types – epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

  11. Organ Level • Composed of 2 or more types of tissues • Have specific functions (e.g. __________, ____________, _________)

  12. Organ Level • Composed of 2 or more types of tissues • Have specific functions (e.g. stomach, heart, brain)

  13. Organ System Level • Composed of related organs with a common function • e.g. __________ system (__________, ____________, _________, __________, ____________, _________)

  14. Organ System Level • Composed of related organs with a common function • e.g. digestive system (mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine)

  15. Organismal Level

  16. Organismal Level All of your organ systems working together to perform a particular function: living!

  17. Expect a Quiz SoonKnow – Definitions of anatomy and Physiology Six levels of structural organization

  18. Systems of the Human Body • 11 Systems • Each has a ________ __ ________ that share __________ ____________ _________

  19. Systems of the Human Body • Lymphatic system • Respiratory system • Digestive system • Urinary system • Reproductive system(s) • 11 Systems • Integumentary system • Skeletal system • Muscular system • Nervous system • Endocrine system • Cardiovascular (Circulatory) system • Each has a group of organs that share common overall functions

  20. Body Systems (there are 11)We will list a function and an organ

  21. Body Systems (there are 11)We will list a function and an organ

  22. Body Systems(there are 11)We will list a function and an organ

  23. Body Systems

  24. Integumentary System What if you stopped going outside (Vitamin D) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hmqguIFMC-Y • Components: • Skin • Hair • Nails • Oil glands • Sweat glands • Functions: • Protection • Regulates body temperature • Eliminates wastes • Helps make vitamin D • Cutaneous sensation

  25. Skeletal System • Components: • Bones • Joints • Associated cartilages • Functions: • Support and protection • Assists movement • Produces blood cells • Stores minerals & lipids

  26. Muscular System • Components: • Skeletal muscle • Functions: • Movement • Stabilizes body position • Generates heat

  27. Nervous System • Components: • Brain • Spinal cord • Nerves • Special sense organs • Functions: • Regulates body activities • Detects, interprets, and responds to changes in the body

  28. Endocrine System • Components: • Hormone-producing glands • Hormone-producing cells • Functions: • Regulates body activities • Detects and responds to changes in the body

  29. Cardiovascular System • Components: • Heart • Blood vessels • Blood • Functions: • Carries oxygen and nutrients to cells • Carries carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells • Regulates acid-base balance • Regulates body temperature • Helps defend against disease • How the heart workshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oE8tGkP5_tc

  30. Lymphatic System • Components: • Lymphatic vessels • Lymphatic fluid • Spleen, thymus, tonsils, lymph nodes • Functions: • Returns proteins and fluids to the blood • Carries lipids from the GI tract to the blood • Helps defend against disease

  31. Respiratory System • Components: • Pharynx, larynx, trachea • Bronchial tubes • Lungs • Functions: • Transfers oxygen and carbon dioxide between air and blood • Regulates acid-base balance • Voice production

  32. Digestive System • Components: • Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine • Liver, gall bladder, pancreas • Functions: • Breaks down food • Absorbs nutrients • Eliminates wastes

  33. Urinary System • Components: • Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra • Functions: • Produces and eliminates urine • Eliminates wastes • Regulates blood composition • Regulates acid-base balance • Maintains mineral balance • Regulates production of red blood cells

  34. Reproductive System(s) • Components: • Gonads (testes, ovaries) • Associated organs • Functions: • Produces and stores gametes (sperm, oocytes) • Produces hormones

  35. Would you like to know more? • Crash Course Biology – #26 - #34https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4PPZCLnVkA&list=PL3EED4C1D684D3ADF&index=26

  36. Anatomical Terminologyd. Demonstrate the scientific use of anatomical terminology, including directional terms, body planes, body regions, and body cavities, to locate anatomical features. (K, STSE) • Descriptions of components always assume that the body is in the _____________ ___________. LET’S ALL TRY IT!!! (Remember, we are referring to the patient’s left or patient’s right)Importance:When medical care providers communicate with one another, it is beneficial to have a universal language to identify areas where health problems may be present.

  37. Anatomical Terminologyd. Demonstrate the scientific use of anatomical terminology, including directional terms, body planes, body regions, and body cavities, to locate anatomical features. (K, STSE) • Descriptions of components always assume that the body is in the anatomical position • Standing erect • Head level and eyes facing forward • Upper limbs at the sides with palms turned forward • Lower limbs such that the feet are flat on the floor and directed forwardLET’S ALL TRY IT!!! (Remember, we are referring to the patient’s left or patient’s right)Importance:When medical care providers communicate with one another, it is beneficial to have a universal language to identify areas where health problems may be present.

  38. Regions of the Human Body Most terms are based on Greek or Latin words.

  39. Body Regions

  40. Body Regions (Axial) Cephalic (Head) Cervical (Neck) Scapular Thoracic (chest) Dorsal Lumbar

  41. Body Regions Upper Limb Lower Limb

  42. Body Regions(Appendicular) Upper Limb Brachial Antebrachial Carpal Lower Limb Phalangeal Femoral Crural Tarsal Phalangeal

  43. Directional Terms • Specific directional terms are used when describing the ____________ of one part of the body to another. • Refer to the____________ ____________of the body parts when the body is in the anatomic position • Most can be grouped into ____________ that have opposite meanings

  44. Directional Terms • Specific directional terms are used when describing the relationship of one part of the body to another • Refer to the relative positions of the body parts when the body is in the anatomic position • Most can be grouped into pairs that have opposite meanings

  45. AnteriorEx. ACL Superficial Deep Posterior Contralateral Ipsilateral Anatomical Terminology Continued

  46. Superficial [Toward the surface of the body] Anterior (ventral) [Toward the front of the body] Posterior (dorsal) [Toward the back of the body] Deep [Away from the surface of the body] Contralateral [On the opposite side of the body] Ipsilateral [On the same side of the body]

  47. Medial Ligaments are closer to the middle line of the body. (Knee Example) Lateral Medial Proximal Superior Proximal – closer to the chest.Distal – further from the chest. The heart is superior to the large intestine.The large intestine is inferior to the heart. Distal Inferior

  48. Body Cavities – (cavity = hole)